Types of hemangiomas and methods of their treatment

There is no reliable information about the provoking factors of hemangioma in adults and children, although there are many assumptions and hypotheses explaining the factors and mechanisms of the formation of individual tumor processes.

It is absolutely proved that there is no connection between mutations and the development of education. The generally accepted theory of the generation of hemangioma is considered a viral infectious factor that occurs during pregnancy up to 12 weeks.

The bottom line is that during the first trimester the formation of the circulatory system occurs, and the toxic effect of viruses leads to the formation of intraorganic or superficial hemangiomas already in infancy or in adulthood.

The picture shows a flat hemangioma of the skin of a newborn baby.

In adults, such tumor processes are activated due to a traumatic factor or as a result of a thrombogen-forming process.

There are several types of hemangioma. In connection with the location of the tumor are divided into:

  1. Skin Educationcharacterized by their location in the superficial epidermal layers. Similar tumor formations belong to innocuous hemangious species, which is why they are usually not touched. Although in case of being close to the visual or auditory organs, on the face, back or in the perineum, removal is necessary to avoid irreversible changes and dysfunction of closely located organs,
  2. Musculoskeletal Educationarising on the spine, muscle or joint tissues. These tumors are slightly heavier, but not so much that they are removed immediately after detection. As a rule, surgical procedures are initiated when a hemangioma of this nature becomes the cause of problems with the skeletal formation of children,
  3. Parenchymal hemangia processes concentrated in the testicles, bladder, hepatic, adrenal or renal, brain or pancreas parenchyma. Such tumors need immediate removal, because they are fraught with intraorganic lesions or bleeding.

According to the histological structure, hemangiomas are classified according to morphological features into such varieties as a simple or capillary tumor, combined, venous or mixed formations, etc.

In addition, hemangioma is senile and infantile. The infantile form of hemangioma is most characteristic of newborn girls and is usually located in the head or neck. Outwardly, the infantile hemangioma looks like a reddish stain, autonomously disappearing by approximately 7-9 years.

Senile hemangiomas are also called senile. Such formations look like crimson-red bumps, which are mistaken for moles. But with a birthmark, senile hemangioma has structural differences, because a hemangiomas tumor consists of venous structures.

Capillary

Such hemangiose form is considered one of the most common tumor processes. The capillary hemangioma is distinguished by its shallow location in the upper epithelial layers. The structure of the tumor is represented by a cluster of connected walls and intertwined capillaries. Such formations have a predisposition to penetrating germination.

Such tumors are located mainly on the head, neck. They can occupy large areas, delivering cosmetic discomfort to the patient.

Photo of capillary hemangioma on the scalp

With pressure on a similar hemangioma, a rapidly passing blanching of the tumor is traced. It is an asymmetrical patch with jagged edges that has a purple-bluish or reddish-pink hue. Such tumors are prone to ulceration, although they almost never undergo malignancy.

Cavernous

Such a tumor is concentrated in the subcutaneous tissue, forming from larger vessels, rather than the capillary form of the formation. It looks like a protruding purple swelling formed from a venous congestion. The cavernous hemangioma can grow only in the subcutaneous tissue, and the internal organs or muscle tissue are rarely affected. Occurs on the skin of the thighs and buttocks.

Photo of cavernous hemangioma on the neck of a child

Such formations may be diffuse or limited. Diffuse hemangiomas have blurred edges, occupy a vast area in the form of multiple different-sized formations. Limited tumors have a distinct separation from other areas.

Combined

Combined hemangiomas represent a cavernous-capillary mixture, such formations are located under the skin in the fiber and in the epidermal layers. Formed hemangioma on intraorganic surfaces, on the bones of the skull, frontal bone or skin. Such a tumor is most specific to adult patients.

Racemic

Such a species is relatively rare. Racemose hemangioma is also called branchy. Most often, these tumors are located on the limbs and scalp. They consist of twisting and intertwining blood vessels. Specialists usually consider such a neoplasm as a cavernous hemangioma.

Such a term means a tumor consisting of vascular, nervous, lymphoid and connective tissues. The group of such formations include angioneuromas, angiofibromas, hemlinfangiomas and other tumors. Clinical data of this kind of formations are caused by a type of prevailing tissue.

Venous hemangioma is often called the swelling of senile lips or venous lakes, because this formation is usually found on the face in the elderly. Experts suggest that the development of such tumors has an important influence of UV radiation.

Externally, the venous hemangioma looks like a soft dark purple or bluish papule with a diameter of not more than a centimeter. Usually this formation is located on the lower lip.

The photo clearly shows what the venous hemangioma of the skin looks like in an adult.

The tumor delivers only cosmetic discomfort. When pressed, the venous hemangioma takes on an almost colorless appearance, because it has a thin-walled abdominal structure and is filled with blood.

Skin hemangioma

Such a venous tumor is located on any part of the body, because symptomatic manifestations do not depend on whether the tumor is located on the facial or gluteal zone. In general, the tumor can be characterized by the following features:

  • On the surface of the skin cover is a slight elevation, which can be any shade of red palette (from light pink to purple). The number of vessels that make up a tumor affects
  • With the infiltration of a tumor into the depth, various pathological changes occur on the skin due to insufficient blood supply to the tissues - increased hairiness or ulceration, microcracks or hyper-longevity. Any of these symptoms can cause bleeding of the hemangioma,
  • At the location of the tumor there is a slight swelling of the surrounding tissue and pain,
  • When pressed, the formation has a dense consistency, which indicates the absence of a tendency to malignancy. The soft structure indicates a propensity to increase in size in the near future,
  • Around the hemangioma, it is possible to form paresthesian areas where numbness or goosebumps are felt.

The clinical picture of the vascular tumors of the body is almost identical to skin tumors. Its symptoms are also associated with a swollen red tones that cause painful discomfort.

Such formations can be localized in such areas where they will be injured (shoulder area, armpits, mammary glands, on the fingers, belt, etc.). Such damage is fraught with violation of the integrity of the tumor, cracks, bleeding and the formation of sores on their surface.

If the formation has a fast-growing nature, then it may undergo infiltration into the region of the ribs, muscle tissue, which will lead to violations in these organs.

On the face, head, foot, lip and nose

Such localization of vascular tumors in clinical practice is observed quite often. The main symptoms of such formations are swelling, reddish hue, tenderness in the area of ​​the tumor.

Photo of vascular hemangioma on the lip in an adult

Such localization is dangerous due to the excessively close position of the formations with respect to the most important organs such as the brain, the orbits of the eyes, ears, eyelids, etc.

Usually such localization of hemangioma for a long time goes unnoticed, developing asymptomatic. Typically, hepatic hemangioma and gallbladder are detected by chance with an ultrasound, MRI or CT scan of the liver. Such a tumor is more often found in women of 35-50 years of age.

Spine

The presence of vertebral hemangioma is indicated by intractable pain in the back and is not eliminated by other traditional methods such as rubbing with ointment or massage. Pain symptoms localized in the area similar to the location of hemangioma. The therapeutic approach is individual and is determined by the doctor.

Renal localization of vascular tumors is very rare. Similar hemangiomas are congenital, but are found already in adult children. Education increases in accordance with the growth of children, which provokes a pronounced severity of clinical symptoms such as:

  • Lumbar pain radiating to the groin
  • Colic
  • Non-controllable hypertension,
  • Hyperthermia,
  • Hematuric signs
  • Weakness and quick fatigue.

Brain

Cerebral hemangiomas are characterized by nausea-retching, spontaneous dizziness, a variety of headaches, and weakness of muscle tissue.

Also patients with brain hemangioma may complain of extraneous sounds in the ears, head, epileptic epileptic or convulsive states, frequent syncope and paralysis some parts of the body.

During pregnancy

If a liver hemangioma is found in a pregnant woman, then the woman should be regularly observed by a specialist, because such vascular tumors are prone to intensive growth during pregnancy.

This fact is due to increased general blood circulation and increased estrogen levels.

Therefore, during the course of pregnancy, the patient should be observed by the appropriate specialist, noting changes in the state of hemangioma.

Types of hemangiomas

As mentioned above, this infection can appear anywhere. In the modern world, there are several types of hemangioma:

  • spine, called vertebral medicine. Is common among diseases of the vertebral division. It is formed either in the lower thoracic or mid-thoracic spine. Very dangerous. In addition to acute pain, brings the destruction of the supporting bones of the spine or decrease the strength of the spine,
  • the liver. It is a frequent occurrence. You can get rid of it only by surgery. Other vital organs may grow and hurt
  • lips Most often prevails in children and is a benign education. Situated on the mucous and vascular tissues of the lip, why the nearby skin suffers,
  • the kidneys. A very rare disease that is a benign condition.

  1. Simple. Blue-purple or red, has clear boundaries, located on the surface, affects the skin and a little subcutaneous layer. Usually smooth, rarely uneven. If you click on it, then skin becomes pale for a short periodthen returns to its state.
  2. Cavernous. Based under the skin. It looks like a knotted formation with a soft-elastic consistency. It has the appearance of a normal tumor formation, the skin above it either has a normal shade, or a little bluish. When the tumor begins to grow under the skin, the skin changes to a purple-blue color. In the case of pressure, the hemangioma subsides a little bit and becomes slightly pale. In the case of coughing or crying increases.
  3. Combined. Combines superficial and subcutaneous hemangioma. Recognized depending on the prevalence of the tumor. Its very appearance will depend on the tissues contained in it and how the skin suffers.

Possible treatments for hemangioma

To treat it or not to treat it? That is the question? The opinion of the doctors is as follows: if the hemangioma does not change its size and does not grow, then there is no sense in treating it. Just need see a doctor, two or three times to carry out ultrasound. That will be quite enough. However, this applies only to those species whose size is three centimeters. Urgent surgery requires an expanding hepatic hemangioma. Various methods of surgical intervention are used.

If the external hemangioma and normal skin around it, then first sparing methods such as electrocoagulation or cryocoagulation are applied. If these methods do not help, then the decision is made to remove it surgically.

In cosmetology, there are currently used many methods to remove hemangioma, and this happens in a sparing mode for both the patient and his skin, with the result that the scars practically do not remain.

Syndromes combined with infant hemangioma
| edit code

Infant hemangiomas may be part of some syndromes, for example, PHACE or LUMBAR.

  • Drug beta-blockers (propranolol, atenolol) - this method of treatment is leading in the treatment of infant hemangiomas. The mechanism of action of these drugs is not fully understood, but it is already known that these drugs cause vasoconstriction of supply vessels due to compression of pericytes, as well as suppression of vasculogenesis, due to the effect on HemSC (hemangioma derived stem cells - hemangioma stem cells), which also are targeted for steroid hormones and rapamycin.
  • Despite the fact that propranolol and atenolol belong to the same group of drugs, between them there are differences in the mode of administration of the drug, dosage, as well as in the duration of administration. Propranolol is a non-selective beta-blocker, so it also affects the smooth muscles of the bronchi, which can lead to the development of bronchospasm, this drug is also fat soluble, so it penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The drug atenolol is devoid of these shortcomings, but so far there is not enough research with a high level of evidence about the effectiveness of this drug.
  • It should be noted that therapy with beta-blockers is an effective and safe method of treatment of infant hemangiomas. All side effects that developed during treatment, after discontinuation of the drug disappeared. Lethal outcomes are not marked.
  • Drug-induced steroid hormones (prednisone) - this type of treatment can stop the growth of hemangioma, but does not contribute to the onset of involution.Considering that while taking steroid hormones is a high risk of serious side effects, the indications for this method are very narrow.
  • Laser treatment - this method allows you to selectively block the blood flow in the pathological hemangioma vessels without damaging the skin. For the treatment of hemangiomas, lasers with a wavelength of 532, 585 or 1064 nm are used. This method of infant hemangiomas is safe and effective; it is often used in combination with drug therapy.
  • Surgical - removal of hemangioma by excision. Currently, the indications for surgical treatment are significantly narrowed, which is associated with the risk of disease recurrence during surgery in the early stages of the disease, the need for anesthesia and the presence of a postoperative scar. Life-threatening conditions, such as bleeding, can serve as indications.
  • Cryodestruction - the use of low temperature to influence the pathological focus in the skin. Liquid nitrogen is used for this purpose. This method is intended for small superficial hemangiomas. The use of cryodestruction for the treatment of combined, deep, segmental hemangiomas is associated with the risk of scarring in the area of ​​impact.
  • Expectant tactics - a certain developmental cycle is characteristic of an infant hemangioma, therefore the use of this tactic can be justified with small superficial infant hemangiomas located on the body, limbs, in the absence of complications. This method of treatment should be treated with caution during the period of proliferation (up to about 4-6 months of a child's life) due to the risk of rapid tumor growth.
  • Close-focus radiotherapy (BFRT) - the use of this method in the treatment of infant hemangiomas is not justified because of the high radiation loads that are accompanied by skin dystrophy, scarring and the risk of developing cancer at the site of irradiation, moreover, X-rays do not penetrate the skin thickness, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of this method of treatment. This method is not recommended for the treatment of infant hemangiomas.
  • Hardening - rarely used, mainly for small delimited hemangiomas. Usually used hormonal drugs. Repeated operations are often required.

Diagnostics

Diagnostic processes usually do not take much time and do not cause any difficulties, because in most cases the hemangioma is located on the skin surface. And an experienced dermatologist will not be difficult to determine the nature of education. Internal tumors are detected by MRI, CT or ultrasound.

General principles of treatment

For patients of any age, the same therapeutic approach is used, depending only on the location and properties of hemangioma. If education does not belong to the group with a high risk of complications, then it is monitored, because such tumors tend to self-eliminate.

In general, treatment is indicated:

  1. When located near the eyes or with a negative effect on vision,
  2. In the presence of ulcerations,
  3. When the tumor is located in the respiratory system or in close proximity to it, etc.

Among the conservative methods used:

  • Reception of products based on propranolol or timolol - Propranobene, Anaprilin or Timadern, Timol, etc.,
  • The purpose of cytotoxic drugs - Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine,
  • Corticosteroid therapy - Diprospan, Prednisolone, etc.,
  • Pressure bandages for hemangioma.

Among surgical techniques, laser removal, cryodestruction, administration of sclerosing drugs, radiation therapy, electrocoagulation, or traditional excision are particularly common.

Folk remedies for education in the kidney

Among folk remedies such methods are very popular:

  1. Lubrication of the tumor with fresh juice of celandine. Course - 2 weeks,
  2. Wetting hemangioma with a solution of copper sulphate (1 tbsp. L per glass of water). Course - 10 days,
  3. Daily compresses with Kombucha. Course - 3 weeks.

How to treat diseases in the language

Hemangiomas of the tongue are disposed of in several ways:

  • Cauterization,
  • Laser treatment,
  • Cryotherapy
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Traditional surgical removal.

In most clinical cases, the hemangioma in the language does not cause concern.

Can a neoplasm pass by itself?

With child growth and development, the hemangioma may develop backward with its subsequent self-elimination. If a cavernous tumor is not prone to growth, then it can pass by about 5-7 years of age, so it is better in such a clinical case to choose a wait-and-see tactic. If the tumor begins to grow rapidly, then surgical treatment is necessary.

Hemangioma in newborns

The origins of infant pathology are laid in the womb due to the influence of negative factors:

  • failure of the fetal feeding system, violation of the superficial vessels,
  • failure of the formation of the fetus caused by infectious diseases of the mother,
  • the effect of negative hormonal changes in a pregnant woman, an excess of the hormone estrogen,
  • receiving during pregnancy of drugs that affect the blood vessels of the infant, disrupting their structure,
  • negative environmental impact, disrupting the process of vascular formation of the fetus.

In a child, pathology can be seen at birth. Acquires different sizes, depending on the beginning of the intrauterine tumor formation. In the process of growth, the child is able to disappear or grow.

Adult hemangioma

If education is not revealed at birth, the process of its growth can begin at any time in adulthood. However, after 60 years, when the dynamics of the hormonal process of the body calms down, the occurrence of hemangioma is of a different nature, and is not a volume spot, but small specks. Sometimes it is formed in the form of multiple or single small hemangiomas, which are often called moles or senile skin manifestations in men and women.

Impact of rapid growth becomes the impact of negative factors - hormonal disruptions, common human infectious diseases, fever, mechanical external skin damage. In women, a neoplasm appears during menopause under the influence of the restructuring of the body's hormonal background. Under the influence of these factors, a dormant tumor under the skin is able to appear actively and begin to grow rapidly.

Stage of tumor

  • Active stage During the active stage of the life of the tumor, its intensive growth is observed, when during the year the formation can double. The growth process is accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the affected area. The spot may itch, pinch, skin temperature in this area increases. Flat tumor grows not only in width of coverage, but also increases in volume, rising above the skin.
  • Calm stage. In the quiet stage, the hemangioma may not develop. If before the mentioned stage the tumor was in active growth, under the influence of natural factors or using various methods of treatment, the disease does not manifest itself in the next year after the active growth stage. Symptoms of itchy skin surface are absent.

  • Regression of the tumor. Education has an interesting feature when development not only stops, but also includes the reverse process. Healthy vascular cells begin to replace the pathological, the tumor on the body gradually disappears. Sometimes there is a formation of scar tissue at the site of a tumor, which represents a skin defect, but without hemangioma coloring. The color of the skin at this place is close to the natural one; the lump is white or pinkish. In the future, hemangiomas no longer appear.

Differences in the structure of hemangioma

  • Capillary structure of the tumor. When a formation is formed with the participation of capillaries, their growth and the formation of blood-filled cavities are observed. Mostly observed in babies on the face. Palpation is a soft seal of bright color. The boundaries of the stain are clearly defined, the shape is uneven. It can disappear by itself in the process of maturation of the child. In the process of palpation, the intensity of the color with pressure turns pale, then recovers.
  • Cavernous hemangioma. Otherwise - cavernous species of formations. They are the adhesions of the veins and vessels located between the cavities in the subcutaneous tissue. Cavities line the endotheliocytes. A tumor protrudes part of the skin, it can expand inward, covering the closely located muscles. Small vessels are visible on the surface. Pathology is considered the next stage of development after the capillary form. The tumor looks like a growth, rough to the touch, with clear boundaries and an uneven shape. When palpation is inhaled, after - takes the same shape and purple-bluish color. The tumor is dangerous in case of injury, as severe bleeding may occur.

  • Mixed type. Mixed (combined) type of tumor is manifested in a combination of structural changes in the capillaries and cavities, as well as in the presence of other tissues, for example, the connective, forming vascular node. It is considered a transitional stage between capillary and cavernous species. The boundaries of the tumor is not clear. Education slightly rough, turning into smooth. It is noted on the surface of the skin with a gradual transition to its deepest spheres.

How to get rid of the pathology

There are non-invasive and invasive methods of treatment of hemangiomas and surgical operations. The method of treatment is developed depending on the stage of the disease, the patient's age, contraindications for the patient.

Non-invasive treatment methods involve drug therapy. The patient is prescribed a complex of hormonal drugs of nature, allowing to suspend the development of education or level its effects, provoking healing by replacing with scar tissue. This type of treatment is prescribed in the presence of contraindications to the patient or the nature of the tumor, which does not grow and is located in an invisible zone, for example, on the scalp or on the back. A patient who demonstrates a fear of surgery may not agree to surgical intervention, if the tumor does not violate the aesthetics of the appearance.

Invasive methods of treatment are carried out with injections that stop a tumor along its borders. In this case, the vessels feeding the hemangioma are destroyed, the tumor gradually shrinks, turns black and is removed by a cosmetic method - laser grinding. The procedure is painful, but pointed and effective.

The tumor is removed with a laser and liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen is used exclusively for local manifestations of the pathology, not affecting a vast area of ​​tissue. The laser is considered safe and gentle. Its application is shown in local and extensive formations. The laser effect helps to get rid of hemangioma completely, if it does not affect the deeper layers of the skin, to achieve a positive cosmetic effect and to prevent further growth. When treating with a laser, it is adjusted in such a way that the beam has the most effective effect on the blood vessel. The laser acts locally with warm energy, contributing to the coagulation of hemangioma vessels, while healthy vessels are not affected and retain their structure.

Laser removal involves at least five procedures to achieve a visible and therapeutic effect. There are no contraindications for age in this method of treatment.

Radiation therapy is sometimes used. However, its impact is extensive, can adversely affect healthy cells of the body. Not recommended for the treatment of children due to the growing body.

Surgical intervention involves the removal of hemangioma seals and growths, is used when hemangioma grows deep into the patient's tissue, when other methods of treatment are powerless. Simultaneously with the removal, histology of the extracted tissues is carried out to exclude the presence of malignant cells. The effects of surgery are scarring and the formation of scar tissue.

Hemangioma disease has been known for a long time. Known folk remedies for treating, slowing the growth or alleviating the symptoms. It is believed that the imposition of a tight bandage on the area of ​​education, if the location is local, for example, on the finger, helps to reduce blood flow, relieve inflammation and prevent further development.

For the treatment of superficial hemangiomas, extracts of herbs, extracts of fruits and plants are used:

  • Oak bark,
  • walnut juice,
  • celandine or onion,
  • Kombucha juice.

It is believed that compresses help get rid of hemangioma or prevent its further development. The degree of effectiveness of treatment with folk remedies has been tested for years, but it is impossible to get rid of hemangioma with their help.

Before using traditional methods of treatment, it is necessary to identify with the doctor the fact that this is an education, its appearance, and to consult about the type of national treatment.

Should I pay close attention to hemangioma

The danger of pathology for a person remains, despite the benign nature and the absence of cases of morphological transformation of cells into oncology.

  • there is a danger of introducing oncological cells among benign cells that cannot be detected without diagnosis,
  • if the patient has diabetes, the tumor may be accompanied by ulcers,
  • mechanical bleeding,
  • Cosmetic effect that negatively affects the psyche and worsens the quality of human life.

Disease prevention

If the skin disease already exists in the human body, it is necessary to take care of the skin, to prevent them from overheating in the sun, exposure to direct sunlight. Stressful situations can give impetus to any disease, including the skin pathologies. It is impossible to prevent hormonal disruptions in the body, in time to apply hormone therapy.

Do not allow the development of infectious diseases, relies strengthen the immune system of the body, taking vitamins. Follow the ecological situation. If there is a risk of developing a tumor, it is better to change the place of residence.

To exclude a congenital type of pathology in newborns, pregnant women should adhere to similar principles of prevention.

Preventive measures are not able to completely eliminate the causes of the disease and get rid of it, but they have the opportunity to alleviate their symptoms and prevent further development if they show signs of its occurrence.

Watch the video: Birthmarks removal (September 2019).