Thrombosis is a disease that is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the vessels. They block the lumen of the vein or artery and disrupt the normal blood supply to a specific organ or part of the body. Frequent place of localization of blood clots are lower limbs. If a person with a blood clot in the leg does not seek medical help on time, the disease can result in death or disability.
The main complication of pathology is the separation of a blood clot, which, together with the blood flow, begins to travel through the blood vessels. If it reaches the arteries of the heart or lungs, then their blockage occurs. This may result in an increase in symptoms of pulmonary and heart failure, or a myocardial infarction. When a blood clot gets into the cerebral vessels of a patient, a stroke occurs. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of a blood clot in the leg and seek medical help in a timely manner.
Causes of blood clot formation in the leg
Blood clots begin to form on the background of coagulation disorders. In those places where the vessels are damaged, clots are formed from blood cells and fibrin fibers. Also atherosclerotic plaques are a favorite site for clotting.
A blood clot becomes an obstacle in the way of blood flow, therefore more and more new blood cells join it. Another negative factor affecting the accelerated growth of a blood clot is inflammation of the vascular wall.
So, in order for a blood clot and fibrin filaments to form in the leg, three conditions are necessary:
Disruption of blood coagulation.
Violation of the integrity of the vascular wall.
Slowing blood flow.
Triggers that contribute to the development of the disease are:
The resulting injury to the lower extremities.
Surgery on the veins of the lower extremities, or on soft tissues.
Transferred infectious diseases.
Long pastime while sitting or lying down.
Sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity.
The period of childbearing and the early postpartum period. In this case, the thrombosis will be due to hormonal surges in the body of a woman.
Acceptance of hormonal contraceptives.
The presence in the body of a cancerous tumor of a malignant nature.
Types of blood clots in the leg
The most dangerous type of blood clot is a floating clot. Such a blood clot is located on a thin stalk, which can come off at any time.
Also distinguish parietal blood clots, which are most often formed around atherosclerotic plaques. They represent a lesser threat in terms of separation, however, the risk of embolism remains.
Occlusive thrombus is called a formation that grows to an impressive size, thereby blocking the flow of blood through the vessels. Such blood clots often form in the lower limbs.
Depending on the location, venous thrombus is isolated, which leads to the development of thrombophlebitis (defeat of the saphenous veins) and phlebothrombosis (defeat of the deep veins of the lower extremities). There are also arterial thrombi, which are localized in the arteries of the legs and cause a disease called arterial thrombosis.
Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg
Initially, the disease can develop hidden, giving itself to know only after the occurrence of the first complications.
However, about half of the patients have the following symptoms:
Sense of heaviness in the lower limbs.
Swelling of the legs, not associated with heavy drinking or overwork.
Blue skin of the feet.
Bursting pain in the legs of varying intensity.
Local and general fever.
Inflammation of regional lymph nodes.
Pain when touching lower limbs.
Swelling of the superficial veins, increased venous subcutaneous pattern on the legs, in the lower abdomen, in the thighs.
These are common symptoms that characterize the presence of a blood clot in the leg.
Arterial thrombosis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
Numbness of the extremities, lowering of body temperature below the area where the thrombus formed.
Pain that tends to increase.
Loss of sensation of limbs.
As for thrombophlebitis, in which thrombi are localized in the superficial veins, it is accompanied by the following symptoms:
Veins become dense, expand.
When you touch the veins, the person is in pain.
The skin above the veins becomes red.
Symptoms of phlebothrombosis, in which a thrombus forms in the deep veins of the legs:
Heaviness in the legs.
Pain in the lower limbs.
The formation of subcutaneous bubbles filled with fluid.
General intoxication of the body.
If a patient has thrombosis in the arteries of the lower extremities, in 10% of cases it will end with amputation. Thrombophlebitis is almost always a complication of varicose veins. If you do not treat thrombophlebitis, the disease will be accompanied by frequent relapses and complicated by the transition to deep vein thrombosis of the legs.
Complications of blood clots in the leg
If a blood clot is located in the deep veins of the lower extremities, then the patient often develops chronic venous insufficiency. This complication is expressed in swelling of the legs, in the malnutrition of tissues. As the pathological condition progresses, the patient may develop gangrene, eczema, and trophic ulcer.
The most serious complication of a blood clot is pulmonary embolism. At the same time small pieces of thrombus migrate with the blood flow to the pulmonary artery. When they fall into its narrow part, the vessel is blocked. Disruption of blood flow provokes acute respiratory and heart failure, therefore, it is not always possible to save the victim.
Other complications of a blood clot in the leg include lung infarction, cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, limb amputation in the face of developing gangrene, thrombus suppuration and abscess.
Diagnosis of thrombus in the leg
If a person has a suspicion that he has a blood clot in his lower limb, he should seek medical help. First you should visit a therapist who will give a referral to a phlebologist.
Already during the initial examination, the doctor will be able to set a preliminary diagnosis. To detect a thrombus in the leg, the following tests can be performed: marching test, Homans test, Lowenberg test, plaque tests, etc.
Modern phlebology has a sufficient number of instrumental techniques that allow to detect pathology:
Duplex angiography of vessels.
Rheovasography of the lower extremities.
A clinical analysis of the blood does not allow for diagnosis, but with thrombosis, the ESR, leukocytes, and platelets will be overestimated in it. The patient must donate blood on a coagulogram and on a D-dimmer test. A comprehensive examination will allow you to collect as much information as possible about the patient’s state of health and prescribe adequate treatment.
Treatment of thrombus in the leg
If a person had a blood clot in the leg, he should be hospitalized. Provided that medical assistance will be provided in a timely manner, you can get rid of a blood clot completely without surgical intervention. However, no specialist can guarantee the recurrence of the disease.
If a patient is diagnosed with arterial thrombosis, then the following treatment is indicated:
Performing thrombectomy, in which the clot is removed by surgery. The operation on the vessels can be performed in an open and closed way. Most often it is carried out on an emergency basis. Local anesthesia is performed. General anesthesia is indicated for reconstructive interventions (bypass surgery, prosthetics, thrombintimectomy).
Elimination of the root cause of the disease that caused the formation of a blood clot.
Purpose of antispasmodics: No-shpa, Papaverin, Baralgin. The drugs are administered intravenously.
Intravenous administration of 10 000 IU of Heparin.
Conduct antithrombotic therapy with the use of several drugs. Always begin treatment with the use of low molecular weight Heparin, in the future the patient may be prescribed such drugs as: Trental, Rheopoliglukin, Aspirin, Nicotinic acids.
Treatment of thrombophlebitis by conservative methods is reduced to the implementation of the following measures:
Applying a bandage with heparin ointment.
The appointment of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Reduction of venous stasis with the help of Troxerutin, Hydroxyethyl Ruthoside, etc.
If a patient develops an acute inflammatory reaction of localization, then antibiotics are prescribed.
The affected limb is bandaged with elastic bandages.
Fibrinolysin, Trypsin, Streptokinase, Urokinase and other fibrinolytics are used to dissolve the thrombus.
To thin the blood prescribed anticoagulants.
Hirudotherapy has a good effect in the treatment of thrombophlebitis. For the procedure using leeches. The operation is prescribed for ascending shin thrombophlebitis of the leg and in the case when blood clots are located in the superficial veins of the thigh.
If the patient is diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis of the legs, then he is shown a strict bed rest. The affected leg is fixed in an elevated position. To prevent the formation of new blood clots, the patient is prescribed Heparin, which is administered during the week. Then the patient is transferred to warfarin. The term of its use is equal to six months. If deep vein thrombosis is diagnosed at advanced stages, or is complicated by severe circulatory disorders, then the patient is prepared for thrombectomy.
Prognosis and prevention
When chronic blood flow is not observed, it is possible to achieve complete recovery in 70% of cases. Other patients need long-term and sometimes lifelong treatment. Pulmonary embolism occurs, on average, in 20% of patients with a blood clot in the leg. Thrombosis of deep vessels is the greatest danger in this regard. In 5% of the cases, the embolus is fatal.
Patients with a once-diagnosed thrombus in the lower extremities need to reconsider their diet, enriching it with seafood, fresh vegetables and fruits. It is equally important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, give up bad habits and be regularly observed by a doctor.
Education: Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (1996). In 2003, he received a diploma from an educational and scientific medical center for managing the affairs of the President of the Russian Federation.
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What is a blood clot in the leg
If blood clots form in the superficial veins of the lower extremities, it means that a thrombosis has arisen in the leg. As a rule, a blood clot completely or partially clogs the blood vessels, which can lead to extremely negative consequences. With venous thrombosis, the blood does not freely move through the veins. Due to the violation of the outflow, stagnation occurs, accompanied by swelling and blue skin. A thrombus is a consequence of the poor performance of the anticoagulant system when it thickens.
More often clots appear in the area of damage to the vascular walls or in the area of localization of atherosclerotic plaques. Over time, fibrin filaments are deposited there and micro-inflammation develops, which is the cause of the first thrombus. Growing clot due to the layering of thrombotic masses. When their surplus becomes, the blood flow stops in the lower limb.
What makes a blood clot in a person
Initially, the thrombus is soft, but over time the structure thickens. Under the pressure of blood clot comes off from the vascular wall, breaking down into fragments. Some of them are subjected to destruction, others are moving towards the organs, representing a serious danger to the further functioning of the body. Especially dangerous are blood clots formed in large veins. After separation, they migrate through the bloodstream, causing a stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, or death.
The risk group includes the following group of people:
- men after 40 years
- menopausal women
- with obesity
- with malnutrition
- drink plenty of alcohol
- with reduced activity (physical),
- pregnant women,
- after surgery on large joints or abdomen,
- abusing coffee,
- cancer patients
- taking hormonal drugs.
How to recognize blood clots
According to the first signs, it is very difficult to determine leg thrombosis. The insidious formation is often formed in the leg due to a long standing posture, so the symptoms of the disease are easily confused with the ordinary physical fatigue of the lower limbs. Key signs of a blood clot in the leg are discoloration of the skin. On the affected area, the skin becomes reddish-bluish, the process is accompanied by swelling and pain.
What does a blood clot look like?
To see a blood clot in the vein on the leg, you need to carefully examine and feel the lower limbs. If redness or condensation in the area of the arteries, pain during palpation, then we can talk about thrombophlebitis. Sometimes the temperature on the compacted site is significantly increased. Often the symptoms of a blood clot in the leg are not present at all, but visually the tumor can be seen in small tumors and bluish areas, as in the photo.
After the formation of a thrombus in the vein, completely different symptoms may appear. Often, the patient has painful calf muscles when flexing the feet, a sprain in the area of the affected vessels, inflammation of the knee joints, heavy legs, especially at the end of the day. The secondary symptoms are general malaise, weakness, fever, edema.
Recumbent patients often suffer from phlebothrombosis of the deep veins of the legs. Seeing a doctor after the first symptoms of a blood clot in the leg is a must. The doctor will evaluate the signs of pathology of the body, prescribe diagnostic procedures: ultrasound scanning and blood clotting tests. The method of treatment is chosen individually, depending on the type and location of a blood clot, the presence of concomitant diseases.
Symptoms of a loose blood clot
How to understand that a blood clot broke? Immediately after the detachment of a dense clot in humans, an increase in the heart rate and a decrease in pressure occur. Blood supply to organs deteriorates, collapse occurs, accompanied by chest pain. Such symptoms are characteristic of myocardial infarction. The patient has urinary retention, difficulties with the pronunciation of words, swallowing food, sometimes a person loses consciousness. Due to the malfunction of the stomach and the fullness of the internal organs, abdominal pain is felt.
The lack of air and shortness of breath cause respiratory failure, which provokes cyanosis. Infarction pneumonia often develops or pleurisy is detected, at which the body temperature increases. Sometimes ailment is accompanied by hemoptysis. If a thrombus is not treated, then after a while, the immune system's reactions appear: a rash appears on the skin, reactive pleurisy develops, and the concentration of eosinophils increases in the blood.
What to do when a blood clot in the leg
As soon as the first signs of separation of a blood clot in the leg are noticed, the patient should immediately be provided with bed rest, complete rest and call an ambulance. Predict the fate of the patient is impossible, because sometimes death occurs within a few minutes. To save the patient, the doctor makes a decision based on the situation. The localization of the thrombus is important. If a person has time to deliver to the hospital, then the following measures will be taken to save his life:
- surgery to remove a stuck clot,
- installation of a venous cava filter, which is able to intercept a detached thrombus,
- the introduction of a large amount of anticoagulant into the vessel (often used Heparin).
Although deep vein thrombosis is equivalent to a catastrophe, the separation of a blood clot in the lower extremities is rare. For this to happen, it is necessary that three reasons come together:
- Vein inflammation. Even the initial degree of varicose veins indicates pathology. The presence of spider veins on the legs is an easy inflammatory process. He needs timely therapy in order not to wait for the formation of a blood clot.
- Slowing blood flow. Occurs with a sedentary lifestyle. Without the work of the muscular system will not be the normal tone of the venous walls. It is not necessary to perform strength exercises or run. You need to walk regularly and learn how to breathe in the stomach to help the circulation.
- Increased blood clotting. As a result of malnutrition increases blood viscosity, clots are formed. To liquefy it is necessary to include in the diet products such as beets, garlic, oatmeal, eggs, sunflower seeds, and sour-milk products. In addition to a special diet, you can additionally take medicines (Aspirin).
Sometimes clots dissolve on their own. This happens with a healthy diet, an active lifestyle, quitting alcohol and smoking. However, this does not happen immediately. Sometimes it takes several years to get rid of a blood clot. If the disease is not treated, circulatory disorders can lead to poor skin conditions, dry mucous membranes, and autoimmune changes. As a result of insufficient nutrition of the tissues, their death will gradually occur - gangrene will occur, which will lead to loss of the limb.
Thrombosis of the vessels of the lower extremities is a significant risk factor for dangerous thromboembolic complications regardless of the location of the occlusion. All variants of venous obstruction are divided into 2 types:
- Occlusion in the superior vena cava system,
- Occlusion of the vessels of the inferior vena cava.
Blood clots in the veins of the legs are always a lesion of the venous network of the inferior vena cava, when a blood clot forms in the lumen of one of the many vessels. The presence of a blood clot becomes the cause for slowing blood flow and gradually increasing the size of the clot. At the first stages of the pathological process, there will be no external signs, but as the state of the lower extremities deteriorates, the symptoms of the disease appear. It is extremely difficult to recognize a thrombus in the deep veins, but if it affects the superficial vessels, it is possible to determine if there is a blockage. You need to know what is thrombosis of the veins of the lower extremities in order to consult a specialist in time and prevent deadly complications.
Deep vein thrombosis of the legs
Causes of pathology
Acute venous thrombosis of the lower extremities occurs under the action of the following most significant factors:
- External or internal traumatic damage to the venous wall,
- Intravascular inflammation
- Genetic changes in the blood coagulation system.
The important conditions that cause the formation of a blood clot in the vein on the leg include:
- lack of normal motor activity
- varicose veins
- infectious and inflammatory pathology of any location,
- the presence of bad habits (smoking),
- overweight combined with hypertension and diabetes
- long-term hormone therapy
- malignant tumors,
- surgical manipulations.
Venous thrombosis of the lower extremities is most often a combination of several unfavorable factors, of which the injury of the inner wall of the veins of the legs and the occurrence of the inflammatory process inside the vessel are most significant. Provocative factors accelerate the formation of occlusion and increase the risk of blood clot separation with the development of dangerous complications.
Causes of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities are associated with adherence to intravascular infection, which significantly increases the risk to human life and health.
Options for occlusive lesions
The basis for thrombotic problems are the following types of vascular diseases:
- Varicose veins of the lower extremity saphenous,
- Thrombophlebitis affecting superficial or deep vascular trunks,
- Postthrombophlebitic syndrome.
In any case of pathological changes in the vessels, conditions are formed for the complete or partial closure of the lumen of the veins. Foot problems are most easily identified with occlusive thrombosis of the great saphenous vein. On the background of deep leg thrombosis, the severity of symptoms is low. In any case, against the background of varicose disease, it is necessary to carefully monitor the external manifestations of the disease, even if there are no signs of venous thrombosis.
Manifestations and symptoms
In each situation it is necessary to monitor the presence of symptoms depending on the disease. Suspected thrombosis of the legs can be in the presence of the following symptoms:
- leg hurts regularly when walking,
- on the background of the load or at rest, pain in the groin of women and men, or discomfort on the inner thigh,
- there is swelling of the foot or lower leg,
- skin color changes, especially in areas of dilated veins,
- body temperature rises.
All varieties of occlusive venous lesions have their own characteristics: it is important to know what are the symptoms of thrombophlebitis and what are the first signs of thrombosis.
Problems with veins most often occur in women. The typical symptoms of the disease include the following symptoms:
- external changes in the skin of the legs associated with the appearance of dilated and tortuous veins,
- pain syndrome of varying severity (from pulling sensations to severe pain after exercise),
- the appearance of cramps in the region of the legs, mainly at night.
In the absence of complications, varicose veins is a cosmetic problem and a risk factor for thrombosis. It is extremely difficult to independently understand when the situation worsens and what a thrombus looks like on the leg, therefore, when a pain syndrome appears or worsens, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Complicated Varicose Disease
The inflammatory process in varicose veins creates conditions for dangerous complications: timely diagnosis of lower limb thrombophlebitis is a major factor in the prevention of severe blood flow disorders in the legs associated with vascular occlusion. Thrombophlebitis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- increase in total body temperature
- maintaining the normal temperature of the sore feet,
- bluish tint of the skin due to dilated small saphenous veins,
- severe pain in the legs when moving and at rest,
- swelling of tissues.
Detection and treatment of acute thrombophlebitis of the saphenous veins should be carried out in a hospital: it is absolutely unacceptable to self-medicate using ineffective folk methods.
Occlusion of the sural veins
The most frequent localization of primary thrombosis of the leg is the system of the sural (deep) veins of the leg. Typical signs of a blood clot in the leg are:
- pain of different severity in the calf region at rest and when touched,
- swelling of the feet and ankles,
- feeling of internal distention of the lower limb after the working day.
Thrombosis of the veins of the leg is difficult to detect, so if you save complaints, you should visit the doctor in a timely manner and conduct a full examination.
Thigh vein thrombosis
The occlusion of the great saphenous vein of the thigh is manifested by the following bright signs:
- severe pain, like veins in my legs,
- femoral ankle swelling,
- cyanotic hue of the skin with dilated superficial veins,
- intermittent groin pain.
Often it is the pronounced pain syndrome in thrombosis and the appearance of a convoluted network of dilated vessels helps to make an accurate diagnosis. The highest risk of pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot forms in the area of the pelvic and hip venous plexuses, so it is necessary to monitor the state of the vascular system of the lower extremities and carry out preventive therapy in time.
Principles of diagnosis
A vascular surgeon or phlebologist knows how to detect a blood clot and what to do when a high risk of thromboembolism occurs. The basis of a successful diagnosis is timely referral to a specialist. In addition to the standard examination and special tests, the doctor will refer to the following studies:
- Laboratory determination of the state of the blood coagulation system using a coagulogram
- Triplex ultrasound scan,
- Impedance plethysmography (determination of the volume of accumulated venous blood in the leg vessels),
- Thermography (assessment of the temperature response in different parts of the sore foot),
- Phlebography (X-ray contrast method that helps detect leg thrombosis)
- Tomography (CT or MRI) is performed according to indications at the stage of preparation for surgical intervention.
At the reception at the phlebologist
The main purpose of the full examination is to determine the presence and location of the occlusion. In addition, the doctor needs to accurately determine the possibility of complications and the risk of thromboembolism: knowing the leg thrombosis is dangerous, it is important to treat thrombosis of the lower extremities with due regard for the sudden deterioration of the condition and the appearance of symptoms of blockage of the vital vessels.
If an occlusive lesion is found in the veins of the legs, an effective therapy should be started as soon as possible. Depending on the type of disease and the severity of blood flow disorders, 2 main methods of treatment are used:
The doctor knows how to treat thrombosis, so you should listen to a specialist and carefully follow all the advice and recommendations of a phlebologist.
The mandatory and most important tasks of conservative therapy include:
- restoration of vessel patency and improvement of venous blood flow,
- preventing a further increase in the size of the blood clot formed,
- prevention of repeated episodes of vein blockage,
- elimination of the risk of thrombus separation and prevention of deadly types of thromboembolism,
- prevention of the chronic form of the disease - postthrombophlebitic disease.
The main and most effective type of medication is anticoagulants, through which the doctor can reduce the size of the intravascular clot and prevent the risk of dangerous types of thromboembolism. In addition, in the complex therapy, droppers with solutions that reduce blood viscosity and various options for vascular preparations are necessarily used.
The main task of surgical intervention is to eliminate the occlusion. Thrombectomy is performed by open access, but only in emergency situations. Two variants are used - full thrombectomy and partial (palliative). In some cases, it is necessary to impose a vascular anastomosis to restore normal blood flow to the extremities. For each patient, the doctor will select the method of treatment individually.
Planned intervention involves the use of minimally invasive methods performed under the control of phlebography.
Endovascular surgical interventions (thrombolysis, cava filter) help minimize the risk of complications during surgery and successfully remove the clot from the venous system of the legs. In the postoperative period, it is necessary to continue drug treatment, the duration of which may be several months. Medical supervision will be obligatory during the entire course of therapy.
Mechanism of blood clots in the legs
At the heart of the process of formation are three factors.
- The first reason for the formation of a blood clot is a violation of the normal rheological properties (fluidity) of the blood. It becomes thick, viscous, therefore it moves much more slowly, it is necessary to overcome considerable resistance, arterial pressure grows. Chunks are likely to form clots by this attribute alone.
- The second reason is blood stasis. As a result, the question is different. It is possible to talk about varicose veins, being in the same position for a long time, immobilizing with forced bed rest, prolonged standing (especially at risk for manual workers, including teachers, cooks).
- The third point is mechanical damage to a vessel. Not necessarily as a result of injury. This may include, inter alia, a diagnostic event, vasculitis (inflammation of the artery wall or vein).
Not always talking about the system. Perhaps isolated development as a result of individual factors.
All reasons are subject to evaluation at once. Identification of a specific condition is carried out as part of a thorough diagnosis.
The basis of the mechanism are the specified moments. Further the process develops according to the same typical scheme.
A clot is formed, consisting of protein and blood cells. It has various sizes and structure.
- Venous blood clots tend to move almost never. They stand still, because the pressure in these vessels is lower and there are valves that partially hold them.
- Arterial - move and can clog the course with the development of rapid death. There are no valves, and the pressure is higher.
Then everything depends on the case. Occlusion of unequal degree, in different localization is possible. With a minimum clot size, the symptoms are scanty, there is time for first aid, transportation to hospital and treatment.
Such chances do not always fall out. More often it happens the other way around. Rapid blockage and tissue necrosis. Disability or death from severe complications.
It is necessary to act quickly if there is a desire to preserve social, professional activity and biological existence.
Symptoms of venous blockage
Manifestations are determined by defeat. They call two main types:
- The first is blockage of superficial vessels or thrombophlebitis.
- Another form is accompanied by a violation of the work of deep vessels, this species is much more dangerous, because it often provokes gangrene and lethal complications.
Signs of thrombosis of superficial vessels
The clinical picture is developing relatively quickly. Full deployment takes from a couple of minutes to an hour.
Signs of thrombosis are typical and specific enough to detect a problem even with the naked eye:
- Redness of the skin above the surface involved in the violation of the veins, looks like a bruise.
- Increase in local temperature. Hyperemia and changes in the thermometer index are typical for inflammatory process or vessel blockage.
- Great pain. Detected by palpation of the site.
- The intensity is significant, diminishes while maintaining the same body position.
- By nature, the syndrome is bale, pressing, pulsing in time with the heartbeat.
- Feeling is felt, which is typical of a vascular problem.
- Compaction. It is found again with palpation, physical examination.
- Violation of motor activity of the limb. A person can not walk, which is associated with a strong pain syndrome.
Symptoms develop rapidly, a gradual spontaneous regression is possible, but this is not an indicator of improvement. Rather addictive.
The probability of complications is about 40%, the optimal time for the start of therapeutic measures is 2-3 hours. Then irreversible changes in the tissues begin.
Symptoms of deep vein thrombosis
The clinic is pronounced, it unfolds as quickly as in the case of lesion of external vessels.
An indicative list of signs is as follows:
- Heaviness in limbs. It feels as if lead has been poured into the leg.
- Reduced motor activity to almost zero.
- Puffiness The sizes increase in one and a half times. Depending on the severity, maybe more. This is the result of a violation of the venous outflow, stagnation of blood and lymph.
- Feeling cold. Palpation and subjective.
- Cyanosis of the skin. If redness is typical for thrombosis of external structures, then it is the opposite.
If the femoral region is affected, the clinical picture is more diverse:
- Severe pain in the affected leg.
- Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg are accompanied by a change in color: first, the skin turns pale, there is a marble tint. Then becomes purple, dark.
- Severe swelling of the legs.
- Blistering, bubbles filled with serous exudate.
The result in both cases is gangrene. Dying off tissue limbs.
Without surgery, the process is rarely self-limited, it spreads further, leading to massive necrosis, sepsis, shock, and relatively quick death.
Typical features of venous lesions - localization of blood clots in an isolated environment.
They are relatively rarely detached from the place of their own education and move along the channel of the vessel. This is almost impossible. Therefore, generalized manifestation is not found.
Signs of arterial blockage
The variability of this state is much higher.
Despite the fact that thrombi of similar origin are less common, they tend to migrate throughout the body, moving independently from the primary place of formation. Therefore, manifestations from the feet are found relatively infrequently.
If we talk only about them, the clinical picture will be as follows:
- Severe pain at the site of injury. The intensity increases with pressure, palpation. The first signs of a blood clot in the leg are always associated with painful sensations of a shooting, oppressive character.
- A typical point is the paleness of the dermal layer. Chilliness. When touched, there is a marked lower body temperature locally.
- Impaired sensitivity. As it progresses, this symptom is also found. At first, to a minimum degree, then stronger.
- The fall of the motor, functional activity of the legs from the involvement. Accompanied by the complete inability to lean, walk. In this case, the pain syndrome persists throughout the course of the emergency.
- Edema. Leg looks puffy, greatly enlarged.
Crowned by a picture of necrosis. Dying off tissue.
In all the cases described, there is time for first aid, transportation of the patient to the surgical hospital, and medical measures to spare. On average, we are talking about an hour or three maximum. For all.
Signs of general intoxication appear later, after irreversible structural changes on the part of the leg tissues.
This is an increase in overall body temperature, weakness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, chills, headache, inability to properly navigate in space. Probably the development of blood poisoning - sepsis.
Recovery activities in this case is carried out in intensive care. The chances of a favorable outcome are vaguely small.
Treatment depending on the type of thrombosis
Recovery methods depend on the nature of the pathological process.
Defeat of deep veins requires primary surgical treatment, if there is no other way to help. But first try to fix the problem in a conservative way.
What drugs are prescribed:
- Thrombolitics to dissolve the clot. Urokinase, Streptokinase. Have a pronounced effect. But create a lot of "sideways."
- Antiplatelet agents. Heparin and its derivatives or analogues. As part of emergency assistance. For prolonged use are strictly not suitable.
- The means restoring blood circulation. Reopoliglyukin and others.
- Parenteral administration of solutions to restore blood flow. Intravenously.
Next, it all depends on the results. In the absence of conduct mechanical removal of blood clots operatively, practiced open or endovascular thrombectomy.
In some cases, practicing the installation of a cava filter, which will stop clots, but this technique is rare.
The defeat of the external veins or thrombophlebitis requires approximately the same measures. Only dosages of drugs differ.
In general, this condition has slightly better predictions and less likelihood of complications.
- Anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal origin. Ketorolac, Nimesulide, Nise.
- Funds based on Heparin.
- Phlebotonics. Detraleks, Venarus, Troxerutin and analogues. Used to restore normal venous lymphatic outflow.
- Perhaps wearing compression knitwear. The operation is also an extreme measure.
As for the lesion of the arteries of the legs, the surgical technique is considered to be the main method. In most cases, only it makes sense.
All other techniques are appointed later as ancillary. For example, the use of the same Heparin and its analogues.
In all cases, without exception, the pathological process requires additional treatment of the primary condition, which causes thrombosis. Be it atherosclerosis, diabetes and other problems.
Without addressing the root cause, there is no point in doing anything. This is a short term measure. The same thing will happen very soon.
If there is such an opportunity, you need to normalize the state. Stop smoking, drinking alcohol, adhere to acceptable physical activity.
Contrary to ideas, thrombosis does not imply a long bed rest, rather the opposite. As soon as the patient feels able to move, you need to do it.
The blood flow and metabolic processes are restored, which has a positive effect on rehabilitation.
Removal of a blood clot from a vein in the leg or artery requires some recovery period. The total duration is 2-3 weeks.
It depends on the start of therapy. Most patients can expect positive results.
The survival rate is 95%, the chances of maintaining full working capacity and total cure in the early stages of therapy, if the recovery is the beginning of less than 2 hours from the start of the condition, are also determined at the level of 90-98%.
As the disorder progresses, the probability of a good outcome is much lower and decreases in proportion to the hours spent in inactivity.
Arterial lesions almost always have worse prospects, because they can penetrate the pulmonary, coronary arteries and trigger sudden death.
A blood clot looks like a blood clot of different sizes, based on its shape and diameter, we can talk about a varying degree of risk. But in this case there is a huge proportion of random.
A more accurate perspective can be described by the attending physician.
Among the likely complications most often found are the following:
- Stroke. As a result of the separation of a blood clot and blockage of cerebral vessels.
- Heart attack. If coronary arteries are involved. The essence of both pathological processes lies in the dying off of tissues. Nervous and muscular respectively. The outcome in many cases is fatal.
- Gangrene. Massive cell death limbs. Especially characteristic of the blockage of the veins of the legs.
- Pulmonary embolism . Almost instantly leads to death without the possibility of recovery.
- Sepsis, shock when delayed care is not the background of limb necrosis.
The result is a person’s disability or death. Depending on the developed consequences.
Blood clots in the leg are formed as a result of the influence of one or another third-party disease, condition. From nowhere, the problem is not taken, it is almost impossible.
Formation factors require correction in the first place, along with the symptoms of the pathological process.
At the initial signs, it is recommended to go to the hospital, call an ambulance. The prognosis and the probability of preserving life and its quality depend on the speed at which treatment begins.