There are 3 stages of the disease. The incubation period is from 2 to 30 days, an average of 1-2 weeks. In the clinical picture, the early and late periods are conventionally distinguished. In the early period, the stage / stage - localized infection (accumulation of borrelia in the skin after tick suction) and stage II - dissemination of the pathogen into various organs are distinguished. The late period (stage III) is determined by the persistence of borrelia in any organ or system.
Stage I lasts from 3 to 30 days and is characterized by general infectious and skin manifestations. The syndrome of intoxication is manifested by headache, weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting. Often there is pain and stiffness in the neck, arthralgia, myalgia, migrating pain in the bones. Body temperature is often subfebrile, but can reach 38.5-39 ° C. The fever lasts 1-3 days, less often Up to 7-9 days. Typical forms of the disease occur with ring-shaped erythema (patho-gnomonic symptom). The favorite localization of the lesion in children is the parotid region, face, scalp, upper body. At the site of tick bite, slight itching, pain, redness and skin infiltration are noted. First, a red spot (or papule) appears, rapidly increasing in size (up to 60 cm in diameter). The shape of the erythema is round or oval, its center turns pale, often acquires a cyanotic hue, the outer edge is irregular in shape, more intensely hyperemic, rises above the level of healthy skin. There is a regional lymphadenitis: lymph nodes enlarged, painful with palpation. In children, various nonspecific rashes, vasculitis, conjunctivitis, catarrhal phenomena, and hepatosplenomegaly may occur. Erythema without treatment persists for several hours or days, less often - weeks and even months. Then it disappears, leaving pigmentation. In some patients, in addition to the primary erythema at the site of the tick bite, multiple erythema of smaller diameter may occur in other areas of the skin due to the migration of Borrelia (secondary, daughter erythema). They are lighter, differ from the main erythema by the absence of primary affect, can recur, merge with each other, have no clear boundaries. At this stage, the process may end or go to the next stage.
Stage II is associated with the dissemination of Borrelia in various organs with a primary lesion of the nervous system, heart, and joints. Clinical manifestations are usually noted after 4-6 weeks. after the onset of the disease. Affections of the nervous system (neuro-borreliosis) most often occur in the form of serous meningitis, myelopolyne-diculoneuritis, neuritis of the cranial nerves, and radiculoneuritis. When meningitis occurs headache of varying intensity, decreasing with time, nausea, repeated vomiting, photophobia, pain when the eyeballs move. Rigidity of the occipital muscles with mild Kernig and Brudzinsky symptoms is revealed. Liquor is transparent, pressure is within normal limits, a pleocytosis of a lymphocytic character is detected (about 100 cells in 1 μl), the protein content is slightly increased (to 0.66-0.99 g / l), the glucose level is more often normal. In some cases, it is possible to detect antibodies to borrelia only in the cerebrospinal fluid. In 30% of patients moderate encephalic irradiation is determined: sleep inversion, anxiety, impaired concentration, emotional disorders. They persist for a long time - 1-2 months. Neuritis of the cranial nerves are observed in 50-70% of patients. The depth of the lesion of the facial muscles does not reach the degree of complete paralysis. Recovery begins from the 2-3rd week. Residual effects are minimal. Often, paresis of the facial nerve is combined with a lesion of the trigeminal nerve, which is manifested by numbness, tingling in the affected half of the face, pain in the mouth and lower jaw. Skin sensitivity is usually not impaired. It is also possible damage to the oculomotor and bulbar groups, as well as the vestibular and optic nerves. Paresis of the limbs are distributed asymmetrically, occur at different times with an interval of several weeks or even months. Possible residual effects in the form of paresis and muscle atrophy. Thoracic radiculitis manifests itself as pain syndrome, compression, (pressure. In the affected areas, both hypo- and hyperesthesia are possible. Neurological symptoms during treatment usually begin to disappear after 1-2 months, but may recur, and the disease becomes protracted or chronic. Lesions hearts ("lime-carditis") develop in 5-10% of patients on average 1-2 months after the onset of the disease. They manifest unpleasant sensations in the heart, palpitations, tachycardia (less often - bradycardia), expansion of the borders of the heart, systolic At the ECG, atrioventricular blockages of varying degrees are detected. Other levels of the cardiac conduction system are also possible - His bundle, Purkinje fibers, and intra-atrial blockages. Pericarditis, pancarditis, dilated myocardiopathy with left ventricular failure are possible. In the earlier period, on the 1-2th week of the disease, changes in the heart of a toxic and dystrophic nature are possible, which disappear during treatment simultaneously with the syndrome of intoxication. Myositis and arthralgia are quite common. These changes are observed, as a rule, at the height of intoxication in the first weeks of the disease. On the 5-6th week. and later arthritis occurs with a primary lesion of large joints (knee, shoulder, elbow), less often - small (hands, feet, temporomandibular). The affected joints are usually not externally changed, rarely can slightly increase due to the swelling of the surrounding tissue. The duration of arthritis ranges from 3 days to 8 months. In the absence of etiotropic treatment, relapses are possible (with protracted and chronic course). Skin lesions can occur with secondary ring-shaped elements, erythematous rash on the palms of the type of capillaries, diffuse erythema, urticarial rash, benign lymphocytoma of the skin (Shpigler-Fendt sarcoid, lymphoplasia of the skin, lymphadenosis of the skin of Beferstedt). Lymphocytoma of the skin is pasty bluish-colored nodules or plaques, painful on palpation, with symptoms of regional lymphadenitis. The most frequent localization in children is the face, earlobe, in adults - the nipple of the breast. Foci exist for a long time, resolving spontaneously, without atrophy. There are both single and disseminated forms. In the second stage of tick-borne borreliosis, hepatitis, keratitis, iritis, chorioretinitis, panophthalmitis, orchitis can be observed.
Stage III (chronic) occurs in periods from several months to several years from the onset of the disease, sometimes after a long latent period. Characterized by damage to the nervous system, joints, skin, heart. In the diagnosis help carefully collected history and clinical and laboratory data. Complications The defeat of the nervous system. Chronic neuroborreliosis is most often manifested by the development of encephalopathy (prolonged headache, memory impairment, fatigue, emotional lability, sleep disturbance, etc.) and polyradiculopathy. Encephalomyelitis, meningoencephalitis, recurrent serous meningitis are much less common. Arthritis has a recurrent nature, during remission the inflammatory process subsides, but does not completely disappear. Mostly large joints are affected (more often - the knee). However, small joints may also be affected. In the joints, typical symptoms of a chronic process are defined: osteoporosis, thinning of cartilage, sometimes degenerative changes (subarticular sclerosis, osteophytosis). In synovial fluid, the number of leukocytes up to 500-100,000 in 1 μl, often an increase in the protein content (3-8 g / l) and glucose is determined, sometimes it is possible to isolate borrelia. Skin lesions Later, the skin lesion (1-3 years or more after infection) develops gradually and is manifested by chronic atrophic acrodermatitis. On the extensor surfaces of the extremities appear confluent cyanotic-red spots with swelling and infiltration in the subcutaneous fatty tissue, accompanied by regional lymphadenitis. The process develops for a long time, for many years, passing into the sclerotic stage. There is a pronounced atrophy of the skin, which takes the form of tissue paper. In 30% of patients at the same time there is a lesion of the bones by the type of syphilitic dactylitis, arthropathy. Chronic heart disease occurs in the form of myocarditis, pancarditis, myocardial dystrophy. Atypical forms. The non-erythema form is characterized by the absence of a typical ring-shaped erythema in stage I of the disease and is manifested only by general infectious syndrome and regional
The diagnosis is based on clinical and serological data. The pathogen can be isolated from the affected skin, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, synovial fluid, for which use material culture with the release of culture. The most informative RIF is the detection of antibodies to the pathogen in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, which gives a positive result in 60% of cases in stage I of the disease and in 100% in stages II and III. The differential diagnosis is carried out with various types of erythema, scleroderma.
Treatment: penicillin - 2,000,000 IU or more per day for 2–3 weeks (depending on the stage), tetracycline –1,000,000–2,000,000 IU per day, amoxicillin –1,000,000– 2,000,000 IU per day (children 20-40 mg / kg per day), erythromycin, 1 000 000 IU per day (children 30 mg / kg per day). For lesions of the nervous system and arthritis, penicillin G and ceftriaxone are used.
Prevention. The main preventive measures are aimed at reducing the risk of contact with the tick. Before going into the habitats of ticks, you need to take care of protective clothing with the presence of tight cuffs and a collar, headgear. To repel ticks, they additionally use repellents (deta, diphtalar, biban) and acaricides (pretix, permanon, permet). After each visit to the forest or park, it is necessary to carefully examine the child, especially the area of the ears, the scalp. When a tick is found, be sure to remove it. If an infected tick sucks, it is recommended to use oral antibiotics for 5 days, which reduces the risk of developing the disease by 80%.
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Cause of disease
The causative agent of borreliosis (Lyme disease) infection is spirochete (a genus of borrelia). Mites contain them in the salivary glands and enter into the wound with a bite along with the saliva. Insects pass on the infection to their generation.
Ticks are especially active from May to August, but can infect when bitten in other months of the warm season. In different regions of the country, tick infestation ranges from 10 to 50%.
The spirochete from the wound at the site of the tick bite penetrates the blood and lymphatic systems and spreads throughout the body, falling into almost all organs. From person to person the disease is not transmitted.
The latent period (from infection to the onset of the disease) can be 2-30 days, on average, it lasts 7-10 days. In the clinic of the disease there are 3 stages.
- The 1st stage of the disease has an acute onset: there is a headache, general weakness, muscle pain, nausea, maybe vomiting, pain in the joints. Some babies may have a runny nose, conjunctivitis, the temperature rises within 38 ° C, and an enlarged spleen and liver may appear. Lymph nodes close to the site of mite enlargement.
The most characteristic symptom of Lyme disease is the appearance of a red spot at the site of the bite (up to 1 cm in diameter) with mild itching and pain. The spot size quickly increases (sometimes up to 20 cm), acquires an oval or round shape. The center of the spot turns pale, and the bright pink edges slightly rise above the surface of the skin - a rash in the form of a ring is formed.
Gradually, such spots (somewhat lighter and without a clear border) appear on other parts of the body. Such rashes are called erythema migrans. They can merge with each other. Elements of the rash persist from several days to several weeks. After the disappearance of the rash remains pigmentation.
- Stage 2 develops without treatment after 2-3 weeks from the onset of the disease. It is characterized by lesions of various organs. The most pronounced manifestations of the nervous, cardiovascular systems, joints.
Frequent manifestations of neuritis of the cranial nerves (oculomotor, facial, auditory), serous meningitis, or meningoencephalitis with paresis and paralysis of the limbs. When inflammation of the meninges (meningitis), a child has a sharp headache with nausea and vomiting, dizziness, photophobia.
There may be numbness in the limbs, feeling of crawling. Sleep is disturbed, the child is restless. Sudden disturbances of consciousness, convulsive attacks may occur. In this stage, the neurological manifestations are reversible and disappear with treatment after 1-2 months.
At 2-3 months of the disease affects the heart: there are heart pain, shortness of breath, palpitations. These symptoms are reversible.
Other organs may be affected: the liver (increases in size, yellowness and dark color of urine appear), organ of sight (inflammation of one of the eye membranes or all of them), joints (knee, elbow, shoulder, small joints of the feet and hands).
It is not necessary for every sick child to have all the symptoms of damage to different systems, so diagnosis in some cases is difficult.
- For stage 3 of borreliosis, the transition to the chronic form is characteristic. Changes on the part of organs and systems are persistent irreversible. Treatment usually brings only a slight improvement.
In the study of the tick check for the presence of borrelia infection. This study is very important because it allows for timely treatment of the child in case of detection of tick infestation.
2-3 weeks after the bite, the child’s blood is examined from a vein to detect antibodies to borrelia. Several tests have been developed for the detection of antibodies: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence test (NRIF), etc.
Currently, there is also a test for detecting borreliosis pathogen antigen in the blood - a faster and more reliable one.
Quite often, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of the clinical manifestations of the disease, without waiting for the results of blood tests.
Particularly difficult to diagnose are the so-called non-erythematous forms of the disease (without eruptions characteristic of borreliosis). These forms are much more likely to become chronic, since pathological manifestations on the part of organs and systems are difficult to associate with possible infection during a walk.
The course of treatment in a hospital. Antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action (macrolides, cephalosporins) are prescribed in the age dosage. Depending on the severity of the disease, they can be used in the form of injections or orally. The duration of the course (5-14 days) depends on the specific situation.
When neuromuscular lesions are used drugs that improve the blood supply and conduction of nerve impulses: Prozerin, Cerebrolysin, Galantamine, B vitamins, Halidor and others.In some cases, oxygen therapy is used (hyperbaric oxygenation).
Of the drugs that reduce the breakdown of muscle protein proteins, Retabolil, Nerobol and others are used. Immunocorrectors (Cycloferon, Polyoxidonium, etc.) can be prescribed to stimulate cellular immunity.
An indicator of the effectiveness of treatment is the disappearance of the manifestations of the disease and a decrease in the titer of specific antibodies.
After treatment, the child is subject to observation by an infectious disease specialist, a neurologist and an oculist for 2 years. Control tests are carried out quarterly in the first year of observation and after 2 years. Such observation is necessary to completely eliminate the chronization of the process and relapse.
There is no vaccine against borreliosis. It is necessary to take measures to protect the child from tick bites. Carefully inspect the baby after a walk and outdoor recreation. If a tick is found on the body of the child, immediately (with all precautions) remove the insect, and then send it to the study.
During the month to ensure the child careful observation. If any signs of disease appear, consult a doctor and follow all his / her instructions and recommendations.
Summary for parents
It must be remembered that ticks can be in the grass and in the city, so the child should be inspected after each walk. If a tick bite is found, it should be removed in the hospital or independently. One should not neglect any symptoms of the disease, since delayed treatment or its complete absence can lead to disability of the child, mental and physical retardation.
Which doctor to contact
If parents are sure that the child is sick after being bitten by a tick or they want to prevent such a disease, they should contact an infectious diseases specialist. Will help diagnose Lyme disease and pediatrician. A sick child should be examined by a neurologist and an ophthalmologist, if necessary, other specialists are consulted - a cardiologist, a rheumatologist, a dermatologist, a hepatologist or a gastroenterologist.
The cause of borreliosis:
Borrelia (spirochete) is a bacterium that causes borreliosis.
The carriers of this infectious disease are ticks. The period of their greatest activity is May-June (but you need to be careful from the end of April to October).
Borrelia live and multiply in the salivary glands of ticks, from which they stand out at the time of the bite by a tick of a person.
Important! Borrelia also actively proliferate in the intestines of ticks, from where they are excreted with feces. Accordingly, in addition to the bite, you can still become infected by simply crushing the tick with your hands!
The disease is not transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one!
Tick - borreliosis carrier
Symptoms of borreliosis:
Important! Early diagnosis is the only option for successful treatment of this dangerous disease.
Due to the fact that very often the disease becomes chronic due to the lack of timely diagnosis in our country, there are two main forms of the disease:
Ring erythema - a manifestation of borreliosis
Symptoms of acute borreliosis:
The incubation period with the absence of manifestations of the disease can last about one month, but, most often, up to ten days. At this time, the baby seems healthy. Then borreliosis begins to progress and characteristic symptoms appear. The course of this infection is carried out in three stages (each has its own set of symptoms).
The first stage of borreliosis (main symptoms):
• Duration - one week,
• A spot with a diameter of not more than 1 cm appears on the site of the tick bite, which rises above the skin,
• Redness around the spot (diameter up to 6 cm),
• The outer boundary of the spot is more saturated color, it does not rise above the surface of the skin (ring erythema).
Important! Ring erythema is the most characteristic sign of borreliosis, which allows to determine the presence of the disease even before the diagnosis.
• Itching, burning in the area of erythema,
• The erythema area is hot and painful to the touch.
Important! Often parents confuse ring erythema with injury to the skin of the child in the process of playing on the street or at home! Be sure to examine the skin of the baby, especially if it was bitten by a tick even a month ago (there are cases and a long incubation period of the disease)!
• Swollen lymph nodes that are closest to the tick bite,
• General weakness and malaise,
• Muscle pain,
• Increase in body temperature to 37-38 degrees.
The second stage of borreliosis
This is the period (the second - the fourth week of the disease) of the appearance of more serious symptoms that allow you to more accurately determine the infection of the child with borreliosis after a tick bite.
◊ Erythema disappears (pales)
◊ Neuritis (inflammation of peripheral nerves). In children, the cranial nerves responsible for facial expressions,
◊ Meningitis (baby cannot bring chin to chest),
◊ pain when moving eyeballs,
◊ Fear of light
◊ Nausea and vomiting,
◊ Feeling numb in the limbs,
М Creeping sensation,
◊ Sleep disorders,
◊ Decreased concentration,
◊ Seizures of epilepsy,
Neurological disorders disappear one month after the onset of their manifestation.
Disorders of the cardiovascular system:
◊ Pain in the heart,
◊ Heart palpitations,
◊ Shortness of breath,
◊ Heart rhythm disorders,
◊ Inflammation of heart tissue (myocardium, pericardium).
Cardio symptoms disappear, usually after six weeks.
◊ Joint pain,
◊ Muscle pain,
◊ Liver damage, which is manifested by yellowing of the sclera (eyes) and skin, darkening of urine,
◊ Conjunctivitis, keratitis and other eye diseases,
◊ Structures are affected (rather severe pain appears): knee, elbow, jaw, hands and feet.
The listed symptoms are all possible. This does not mean that they all appear at once. The baby may experience one or more signs. Because of this, very often, borreliosis is diagnosed late and the treatment and outcome of the disease is complicated.
Important! During this period, Borrelia in the child's body are actively developing and multiplying. And therefore it is extremely important to send treatment to the fight against the pathogen (very often they make a mistake and treat the manifestations and symptoms of the disease).
The third stage of borreliosis:
This period is characterized by the progression of joint damage. There are polyarthritis (inflammation) of these joints:
Multiple arthritis appears one to two months after the onset of the disease and the first symptoms appear. The damage to the joints is symmetrical (i.e., both knee or ankle joints are affected). At the same time there is a violation of the structure of bones and cartilage.
Important! Most often, the third stage of borreliosis occurs in a chronic form. In this case, periods of exacerbation and remission of the disease over several years alternate.
Symptoms of chronic borreliosis:
A characteristic feature of this form of the disease is the alternation of periods of remission and exacerbation. The main manifestations are as follows:
◊ Polyarthritis of the main joints,
◊ The cartilage becomes thinner and disappears altogether
◊ Degenerative changes in the musculoskeletal system of the child,
◊ Skin lesions. Manifested in the form of a crimson tight knot. Localization - an area of the chest or earlobe. Such a neoplasm can last up to several years,
◊ Acrodermatitis. Manifested in the form of spots of bluish-red color. Localization - the extensor region of the limbs. These specks are able to grow in size, merge and form extensive areas of inflammation of the skin. After these symptoms disappear, the skin becomes like slightly crumpled paper. The duration of this process is several years.
Important! These symptoms often lead to disability and complete disability!
Treatment of borreliosis:
Treatment of this disease is carried out in a hospital. To combat the pathogen borreliosis prescribe antibiotics and immunoglobulins. The duration of therapy varies depending on the degree and severity of the disease. Simultaneously, symptomatic treatment is carried out (painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, means for reducing body temperature, vitamins).
After the end of treatment, the child needs to be monitored for two years in the infectious disease ward. With a certain periodicity, he will be given blood for analysis and to determine the titer of antibodies to the pathogen of borreliosis (3 weeks, 3 months, six months, a year and two years after discharge from the department). In addition, due to the damage of the nervous system, heart and eyes, it is recommended to observe the baby in such narrow specialists as an ophthalmologist, neurologist, cardiologist.
Lyme Disease in Children: Causes
Borreliosis in children can be congenital. So it can be considered when the infection occurred in the womb. But these are rare cases.
The development of borreliosis in children usually occurs as a result of a tick bite - most often in the head, at the folds of the joints, arms and legs. Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes ricinus (common tick), is responsible for Lyme disease.
Lyme Disease in Children: Symptoms
A distinctive symptom of borreliosis, erythema migrans (erythema migrans), may appear on the skin, in the places where ticks are pricked. However, studies by American scientists show that it occurs in only 10 percent of children.
After a child’s tick bite, parents should turn to non-specific symptoms that may indicate Lyme disease, such as:
- muscle and joint pains
- irritability or irritability
- fatigue (even after a short walk)
- problems with learning (as a result of impaired memory and concentration of attention), due to the fact that infection most often occurs in summer, these symptoms are noticeable in September, only at the beginning of the school year, or even later
- unwillingness to play (including playing games in physical education classes)
In addition, there may be an increased sensitivity to sound and light, difficulty sleeping (for example, waking up in the middle of the night). Some studies show that a child with Lyme disease may even show ADHD.
Borreliosis in children: diagnosis, how to quickly identify
4-6 weeks after the child’s tick bite, blood tests for antibodies (IgG, IgM) can be performed to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria.
If the result is positive or in doubt, a Western blot analysis is performed.
It is very good that there is a quick way to reveal child borreliosis immediately after tick bite - You can conduct a test that involves detecting the DNA of the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease. In a private laboratory, it costs about 3,000 - 4,000 rubles.
Lyme disease in children: treatment. What antibiotics to give?
Treatment of borreliosis in children is carried out with the help of anbiotics. When prescribing medication, the doctor takes into account the age and weight of the child. The smallest often give doxycycline or amoxicillin.
Can borreliosis be cured in a child? Yes. As follows from research, after an adequate treatment, most patients recover. The sooner treatment begins, the higher the chances of recovery.
Lyme Disease - Common Concepts
The infection is caused by 6 types of borrelia bacteria. The carriers of borreliosis are mammals, birds. Spread the infection Ixodes mites. Borrelia are in saliva, they get into the child’s body with a bite.
The incubation period lasts from 2 days to 60, but more often the first symptoms manifest themselves after 14 days. Asymptomatic development of the disease lasts as long as the bacteria actively multiply. After 10-14 days they begin to die, in the process they release toxins that poison the body, affecting internal organs and systems.
Initially, bacteria multiply at the site of the tick bite. Gradually penetrate the bloodstream, spread throughout the body. They affect the central nervous system, spinal cord, brain, muscles, heart, skin, liver. Borreliosis in a child in the absence of qualified therapy goes through 3 stages of development, the most dangerous last. It leads to the destruction of bone, cartilage tissue, joint pathology, disability, death, loss of vision.
The first stage of borreliosis in a child
Redness, swelling, noticeable swelling, inflammation, induration appears. The size of eczema is from 1 to 60 cm. Since there are no other alarming symptoms, the parents of the affected children seek help from dermatologists and allergists. Photo eczema is presented below. With an incorrect diagnosis, the disease continues to progress, after a few days brighter symptoms appear.
The first stage of borreliosis in a child
Second stage of Lyme disease in a child
It all starts with a rapid increase in body temperature to 40 degrees Celsius. The following manifestations of the disease resemble the flu, but it is alarming that the symptoms appear in the spring-summer period when the flu virus is absent.
Symptoms after a tick bite in the second stage of borreliosis:
- pain, sore throat,
- runny nose
- muscle aches,
- skin rashes,
- blurred vision
- pain under the right rib, enlarged liver.
A characteristic symptom of Lyme disease is a lesion of the facial nerve, the cervical region.
The acute phase of tick-borne borreliosis in a child lasts an average of 7 days. After this, there is either full recovery or further progression. The disease becomes chronic, the following manifestations are observed after a month, six months, a year. It all depends on the strength of immunity, the protective functions of the body.
The third stage of borreliosis in children
The most dangerous, intractable. Internal organs - the liver, the heart, the pancreas, as well as the muscles, the nervous system - are involved in pathological processes.
- atrophic dermatitis,
- pain of different localization
- developmental lag
- impaired memory, thinking,
- decreased vision, hearing,
- epileptic seizures,
- chronic depression
- disorder of the pelvic organs.
Consequences of borreliosis in the absence of therapy, improper treatment - arthrosis, osteoporosis, paralysis, disability, damage to the facial nerve, impaired sensitivity, heart failure, myalgia, neuralgia, dementia, death.
Treatment of borreliosis in children
It is possible to cure the disease completely in 7 days if you promptly seek help from specialists, making a correct diagnosis. Tick-borne borreliosis in children is easily susceptible to antibiotics. The direction of therapy is the destruction of the causative agent of infection, the elimination of painful symptoms, prevention of complications.
Treatment of children in the first stage:
The duration of antibiotic therapy, the dosage is selected by the specialist individually in each case, depending on the age of the child, body weight.
Treatment of borreliosis in children in the second stage:
- antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic preparations for symptomatic therapy.
Antibiotic treatment lasts up to 20 days, in most cases there is a full recovery.
Treatment of Lyme disease in children in the third stage:
- penicillin antibiotics for 28 days,
- drugs to eliminate painful symptoms, depending on the nature of the manifestations.
Symptomatic, pathogenetic treatment involves the use of the following medicines:
- antihistamine, antiallergic,
Clinical recommendations are made by a qualified specialist, individually selected in each case.
With adequate therapy in the first days after a tick bite or at the initial stage, full recovery occurs. Otherwise, the disease progresses, affects the internal organs and systems. In the second stage of the disease, treatment is complicated by a multitude of clinical manifestations, weakening of the immune system. Defeating Borrelia, to eliminate their metabolic products in a month.
The third stage of the disease is the most dangerous, as well as the chronic form, which does not have a vivid clinical picture, imperceptibly leads to autoimmune transformations and pathological processes.
- loss of muscle strength in the arms, legs,
- sensitivity impairment
- face deformation
- decrease in hearing, sight,
- epileptic seizures,
- shakiness when walking,
- joint deformation
- heart failure,
- backwardness in the mental, physical development of the child,
- neurological disorders
The last stage of Lyme disease is difficult to treat and requires a combined approach. Favorable outcome depends largely on the timeliness, adequacy of therapy. Sometimes the disease is completely cured after the first, second stage without special treatment.