Children of preschool and primary school age are at risk of infection with enterobiasis. High social activity, insufficient observance of the rules of hygiene, the desire of children to learn the world "to taste" contribute to the widespread prevalence of this type of helminthiasis. If a child has signs of pinworms in the body, the only way to confirm or refute the diagnosis is a laboratory test. Currently, to detect the presence of worms, the child takes scraping for analysis.
The standard analysis of feces for enterobiosis less often allows you to identify worms and their eggs. This is because the worms of this species do not live in the intestines, but in the stomach. Only at the moment of reproduction the female crawls out through the rectum to the outside in order to lay eggs in the area around the anus. If the child has emptied the intestines in the morning, the eggs and pinworms themselves in the feces of the child can be detected, then it can be understood that he has become infected.
When is scraping for enterobiasis in children prescribed?
Due to the high prevalence, scraping on enterobiosis in children is taken not only when specific symptoms are detected in the baby. If he goes to kindergarten or school, he is scheduled to go to a health camp, the analysis of pinworm eggs is a must-have procedure. Conclusion laboratories require not only when a child enters a kindergarten or school, but also to visit the pool, sports section, etc.
This type of analysis, despite its specificity, belongs to the most common group of compulsory medical research. This is due to the need to surrender:
- For admission of the child in any preschool or educational institution
- If necessary, inpatient treatment
- For registration of spa or resort vouchers
- Swimming in the pool or sports section
They take scrapings and diagnose enterobiosis in children, not only for prevention or for obtaining help, but also in cases when signs of infection of the body with helminths appear. The most obvious of them are as follows:
- itching of the anus or genitals,
- pinworms are clearly observed in the feces of a baby (photo),
- skin redness and burning sensation in the perineum,
- bowel disorder,
- the child often touches its genitals
- capricious behavior and increased activity at bedtime,
- baby complains of abdominal pain.
How to pass an analysis on enterobiosis children?
Samples for research on worm infestation depending on age are taken by several methods. Of course, the most comfortable is the method of collecting material for analysis at home. The only condition is that the sample should be delivered to the laboratory no later than 2 hours. Take scraping on enterobiosis in children:
- using plain transparent tape,
- using hygienic cotton swabs.
The scraping algorithm for enterobiosis in children with adhesive tape is as follows (see photo):
- transparent stationery tape is taken (tape width up to 2 cm),
- cut the workpiece with a length of about 6 cm
- the sticky side of the segment is pressed against the skin in the anus,
- having done this manipulation several times, stick a scotch tape on a piece of glass or a test plate.
To make a smear on enterobiosis in children using cotton swabs, you should use this technique (see photo):
- standard hygienic stick with one end dipped in vaseline or glycerin ointment to slightly moisten cotton wool,
- in the child being examined, the buttocks are gently moved apart, and a moistened tip of a cotton swab is circled in the folds and skin surface in the anus area - a smear is made,
- a stick with a stroke is placed in a clean glass jar or a special test tube, closed tightly with a lid.
The test results for pinworms in children
Often, in order to understand whether a child’s worms are present, not only a scraping from the anus area is analyzed, but urine is also examined. The latter is due to the fact that pinworms in the baby’s urine may appear due to the infection of these parasites of the genitals and urinary tract with eggs. Many parents want to know how many days the analysis of enterobiosis in children is done. As practice shows, no later than in one day, the laboratory produces the results of analyzes. Since it is not always possible to determine the presence of worms from the results of the first analysis due to the nature of their life cycle, it is recommended that samples be collected at least three times over several days. This is especially true when the child has signs of enterobiosis.
Where to pass the test for child enterobiosis, how to prepare for it?
The most high-quality samples can be taken for the analysis of enterobiosis in a hospital, hospital or polyclinic laboratory. With the help of specialists, this procedure is carried out promptly, and the stool and urine samples obtained without delay are included in the study. But since for many people the analysis of pinworms in a child in a clinic setting causes psychological discomfort, parents do it themselves at home. In order for the scraping technique for enterobiosis in children to be carried out at home, it is necessary to follow these rules:
- Do not perform hygiene before taking a sample for analysis.
- the procedure is not painful
- smear should be done early in the morning,
- if the parents know what pinworms look like in the feces of a child, then after finding them after a bowel movement, they can also take this sample.
It should be remembered that only on the basis of the tests submitted can the correct course of treatment be given, which is guaranteed to help get rid of pinworms.
How does the disease enterobiosis in children and why is scraping on the egg-list?
Not everyone has an idea why enterobiosis develops, how to get tested for the presence of pinworm eggs and treat this pathology. Enterobiosis refers to the infectious diseases caused by helminths. This pathology develops mainly in childhood with non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. What are the causes, symptoms and treatment of this disease?
Distinguishing features of the disease
Helminthiasis is a large group of diseases that are caused by parasitic worms (helminths). In humans, the disease causes more than 400 different types of worms. One of the most common of these is enterobiosis. All worms are divided into round, flat (flukes) and tape. The causative agent of enterobiosis (pinworm) refers to roundworms. Biohelminths and geohelminths are also distinguished. Biohelminths develop with the obligatory presence of an intermediate host. To complete the development of geohelminths, they must be released into water or soil.
Enterobiasis is a representative group of nematodoses. The disease occurs predominantly in young children, as well as in persons who neglect personal hygiene products. In children, the share of enterobiosis is 91% of all helminthic diseases. In the second position in terms of frequency of detection is ascariasis. The risk group includes children of preschool, primary and secondary school age (from 5 to 14 years). According to statistics, pinworms are infected every fifth child of preschool age. Among schoolchildren, the incidence rate is even higher. Often pinworms are detected by students.
What are the pinworms
The causative agent of enterobiosis is pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis). These parasites have the following properties:
- small size (up to 1 cm),
- oblong pointed body
- spindle shape,
- live mainly in the small and large intestine,
- females die after laying eggs.
Female individuals are significantly larger than males. Females reach 1 cm, and males 0.3-0.5 cm. The favorite habitat of the parasite is the cecum. Often pinworm found in the appendix. There is a version that pinworms contribute to the development of acute appendicitis. Pinworms are capable of active movement. During a night's sleep, when the rectal sphincters are relaxed, pinworms crawl out.
Fertilized females lay eggs on the skin around the anus. After a few hours, the eggs become infectious. After laying the eggs, the females die. To maintain the population size, eggs are required to be introduced through the mouth into the human stomach and intestines. The development of eggs from larvae occurs at a temperature close to that of the human body.
Mechanism of human infection
The source of infection is sick children and adults. The main mechanism of infection is fecal-oral. Infection occurs by swallowing eggs that contain helminth larvae. The laying of eggs by females is accompanied by intense itching. Man combs the perianal area. In this case, the eggs fall on the hands and under the nails. Under the nails eggs can persist for a long time due to favorable conditions. Many children bite their nails and put their fingers in their mouths. This contributes to the eggs in the stomach and intestines.
Eggs can spread throughout the house. They fall on the bedding, underwear of the patient, toys and dishes. Possible distribution of eggs with air. Eggs can carry a variety of insects (flies, cockroaches). The main ways of human infection are food and household. The main factor of transmission is contaminated hands. Predisposing factors for the development of the disease include non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene (rare change of bed and underwear, insufficient hygienic skills, overcrowding of teams).
Enterobiasis affects predominantly organized children who attend kindergartens and schools. This is due to the fact that the disease is transmitted by contact. Enterobiasis refers to contact helminthiasis. This means that the eggs of the parasite can be transferred from a sick person to a healthy person when shaking hands, using only toys. Often teachers are infected in children's educational institutions. The incidence is often sporadic, but small flashes of enterobiosis are often observed.
Signs of pathology
The disease is not very dangerous for the patient. Despite this, it worsens the general condition of a sick person. Larvae and adults synthesize specific enzymes and biologically active substances that contribute to the development of the inflammatory response. In enterobiasis, the complement system is activated, prostaglandins are secreted. Adults traumatize intestinal mucosa. The greater the number of pinworms, the more pronounced the symptoms of the disease.
With the help of sharp ends pinworms are attached to the intestinal wall, injuring her. At the same time in the intestine may be several hundreds and even thousands of parasites. Helminths irritate the receptors of the mucous membrane, which is manifested in violation of intestinal peristalsis and stool. The secretory function of the stomach and intestines is also impaired. Gastroduodenitis and enteritis develops.
In enterobiasis, when examining the intestinal mucosa of patients, erosions, granulomas, infiltrates, redness and swelling of the mucous membranes are often found. Pinworms help reduce immunity. Against this background, the effect of many vaccines may be reduced. The waste products of pinworms cause allergic reactions. Severe itching and constant scratching can cause dermatitis. In children, the nervous system is often impaired. Sick children may fall behind their peers.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
Enterobiasis proceeds unnoticed. In this pathology, the following symptoms may occur:
- itching in the anal area at night,
- lower abdominal pain,
- diarrhea stool disorder,
- urinary incontinence,
- occasional gnashing of teeth
- sleep disturbance,
- mood lability
- decreased memory and attention
- decline in school performance.
Pinworms can cause delays in the mental and mental development of children. Enterobiasis is often accompanied by weight loss. This is due to a violation of the absorption and absorption of nutrients by the body. Reduced immunity is the reason that children with enterobiasis often suffer from viral and bacterial diseases. Allergic manifestations of the disease include the presence of symptoms of bronchial asthma, the development of allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis.
In girls, worms can cause inflammation of the vulva and vagina. This happens when parasites crawl into the genital tract. This is how vulvitis and vulvovaginitis develop. Enterobiasis can cause serious complications. These include the following:
- defeat of the appendix,
To confirm enterobiosis, patients should be tested. The following studies are needed:
- general blood and urine analysis
- scraping from the perianal area
- study of feces on the egg list.
If necessary, conducted instrumental studies. Consultation with an allergist, infectious diseases specialist, gynecologist may be required. The main method for detecting pinworm eggs is scraping. The analysis of fecal masses is less informative, since the eggs in feces are often absent. Not everyone knows how to pass an analysis on enterobiosis.
Scraping is taken in three ways: using adhesive tape, glass spatula and cotton swab. Prior to this, scraping was used with a fleece with glycerin. The procedure can be carried out in the clinic or at home. No special training is required for this. To obtain reliable results, you must observe the following rules:
- scrape in the morning
- do not wash or shower before the procedure
- Do not empty your intestines.
Technology taking material
The most common method of scraping adhesive tape. To do this, you need to have a piece of transparent transparent scotch tape with a width of no more than 2 cm. The length of the tape should be about 4-6 cm. If the child is sick, you should lay it on its side, gently push the buttocks with the index finger and thumb and press the adhesive tape. Scotch tape can be mounted on a stick. After that, the tape must be removed and glued to the flat glass. In medical institutions there are ready glasses with adhesive tape.
The adhesive tape should fit snugly to the glass. There should be no bubbles. Glass should be taken to the laboratory. In order to prevent eggs from getting on your hands, you need to use gloves. After the procedure they are disposed of. Be sure to wash your hands. Material can be collected in a special plastic container. A stick is attached to the container with which the scraping is done. Doctors know how to take the material with a stick. To do this, wear gloves and take a cotton swab from a test tube (container).
After that, you need to push the buttocks and wipe the area around the anus with a stick. Without touching the stick with anything, you need to put it in a container. The analysis on enterobiosis of the child should be carried out on the day of the material collection. Relatives (parents) of the patient, specially trained medical personnel or the patient himself may take the material. For the analysis of feces required to collect feces in a clean, dry container, then take a small amount of feces and put it in a jar. It is better to get a sterile container with a spoon in a pharmacy.
Treatment and preventive measures
If the test is positive for enterobiasis, how to cure the patient? Treatment of patients with enterobiasis involves the use of drugs, personal hygiene, disinfection measures. The following antiparasitic drugs are used:
When prescribing drugs, the doctor must take into account the age of the patient. Vermox and mebendazole are contraindicated in children under 2 years old and pregnant. Drugs should not be taken for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, liver failure and intolerance to the components of the drug.
It is recommended for children to put a tampon moistened with vaseline oil into the anus for the night. Required examination and treatment of all contact. Especially it concerns the persons living together with the patient. During treatment, you should daily take a shower or wash your face, often change your underwear, cut your nails. Mandatory monitoring of the effectiveness of treatment. A triple study is being conducted.
To prevent re-infection the following recommendations should be observed:
- cut nails regularly,
- wash your hands with antibacterial soap after using the toilet and before eating,
- teach your children personal hygiene skills
- do not bite your nails and do not put your hands in your mouth,
- prohibit the child to take in his mouth toys
- wear close-fitting underwear during treatment,
- change your underwear often
- wash clothes in a washing machine at high temperatures,
- ironing dried laundry
- periodically disinfect the premises,
- treat children’s toys with disinfectants
- carry out wet cleaning regularly.
If the patient works at catering establishments, he should be removed or transferred to another job at the time of treatment. In kindergartens should comply with sanitary and hygienic regime, handle pots. To find pinworm eggs, scraping from the perianal zone is required.
The study of feces on enterobiosis
Analysis of feces is considered one of the most basic studies of the human digestive system. That he is able to show the presence of virtually all types of worms in the human intestine. In some cases, it is by stool analysis that the diagnosis of enterobiasis is made - a disease caused by roundworms of the nematode class, or pinworms.
When suspected to be enterobiasis, two types of studies are conducted:
- Analysis of feces for enterobiosis, which allows to detect the adult parasite.
- Smear or scraping for microscopic examination of the presence of pinworm eggs.
The analysis of feces for enterobiosis rarely can show the presence of eggs in them. Cases of finding eggs are rare, since the life cycle of the pinworm does not involve laying inside the human body. A mature female needs oxygen to carry out the process of laying eggs. Therefore, she is forced to go to the surface through the anus, and only after that lay eggs in the perianal folds.
But in the fecal masses it is sometimes possible to find an adult pinworm. When detected, the parasite is placed in a 75% alcohol solution, and then subjected to laboratory tests. But the percentage of detection of helminth is negligible, and is no more than 5% of the total number of tests passed on the egg list.
However, feces for studies on enterobiasis should be taken, both adults and children. And not only if this disease is suspected, feces are collected. Analysis of feces for worms take:
- when applying for work related to public catering and food,
- to visit the pools,
- before planned hospitalization,
- when visiting a sanatorium complex,
- when a child enters a preschool and school educational institution.
To confirm the diagnosis of damage to the body by pinworms, additionally prescribe a scraping or smear from the area around the anus..
The analysis of feces for enterobiosis can be taken at the district clinic, and it can be collected at home. For this purpose, a specialized plastic container is purchased, equipped with a special measuring or intake spoon, about 5.0 grams in volume.
When receiving a referral for tests, a form is attached to it, in which the patient writes his name, address, date and time of collection of fecal masses., says infectious disease specialist of the Moscow Clinical Diagnostic Center Medsi in Belorusskaya, pediatrician Maria Alekseevna Serova.
Three samples are taken from the feces with an intake spoon - at the beginning, in the middle part and at the end of the excrement of excrements, they are packed in a container, sealed with a lid and given for laboratory tests.
At home, feces can be collected in a glass vial with a wide neck and a tight-fitting lid, since the human body cannot make a bowel movement at a fixed or designated hour. The analysis taken can be stored in the refrigerator by placing it on the bottom shelf, but not more than a day.
To confirm or refute the presence of pinworms in the human body, simultaneously with the analysis of feces you need to take a scraping or smear. This type of analysis is taken exclusively for the diagnosis of enterobiosis. Other worms by smear analysis or by scraping cannot be detected. They can only be detected if one passes a stool for analysis on suspicion of being affected by helminths of other species - ascaris, lamblia, and catenary.
For enterobiosis, the standard of testimony is not to find pinworm eggs in the scraping.
Rules for collecting stool for analysis
The collection takes place in the morning, as soon as the person wakes up. On the eve it is not advisable to wash before bedtime. It is also not recommended to take water treatments in the morning, before a bowel movement.
The container does not need to put the entire amount of feces, or as much as it will. For this purpose, a measuring spoon is attached to a special container. She takes fecal masses, the volume of which is no more than 20 grams. It is important that the fence was made from three points - the initial, middle and final.
The sealed container is desirable on the same day to hand over to the biochemical laboratory. The study of feces is done no more than a day, and the next day the result is given.
Scraping or smear with perianal folds, is considered the main indicator of damage to the human body with pinworms. Donating blood for suspected enterobiasis is not necessary, since such an analysis does not exist.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the most accurate indicator of the presence of pinworms in the human body, is a triple examination by the method of scraping, conducted every morning. The allowable interval is considered two days between the scraping. How many cases of the latent form of enterobiosis reveal such an examination! These results reveal the disease more than 90% of cases of damage by helminths.
Our readers recommend! For the prevention and treatment of parasitic infections, our readers recommend the Bactefort Parasite Remedy. It consists exclusively of medicinal plants collected in ecologically clean places, which are extremely effective in cleansing the body from parasites, and also heals and protects the body as a whole. Opinion doctors. "
How much is the analysis of enterobiasis
One of the most frequent infections with worms (helminths) is enterobiasis. This disease is transmitted exclusively from humans; animals are not carriers. Pinworms enter the body orally (through the mouth). Often such a disease is diagnosed in a child attending a nursery, kindergarten, swimming pool.
Why do I need help on enterobiosis and eggplot
Before you find out how much the analysis on enterobiosis works, you should familiarize yourself with the main reasons for submitting the material. The main prerequisites for obtaining a health certificate are:
- elective surgery or therapeutic measures at the hospital,
- medical institution for a small child,
- when making an adult to work, and children - before going to summer camp, when entering a kindergarten, school, writing to the pool,
- suspected occurrence of the disease.
How long is the analysis on enterobiosis?
There are two ways to conduct analyzes for the detection of helminths (egg lists): examination of feces and scraping from the folds of the anus. It is necessary to find out in advance when a term can expire, how much an analysis on enterobiosis is effective. After all, you can simply not have time to pick up the results from the medical laboratory. Below is a brief description of the methods of material sampling in the diagnosis of worms in humans.
How much is valid stool analysis for enterobiosis
Often, when applying for a child in a sanatorium, pool, or nursery, the results of stool tests (coprogram) and a doctor's opinion are required. This procedure is necessary for identifying pinworm eggs or ascaris (ascariasis), Giardia cysts and other types of helminths. It is necessary to immediately ask the doctor how much a certificate in a kindergarten or school is valid so that the examination is not in vain. The shelf life of such a document is strictly limited.
Before visiting the laboratory, you need to collect morning feces. If this is not possible, the collected material may be stored in the refrigerator door for no more than one day. If the conditions are not met, the result will be invalid. Feces are collected in a special plastic container or glass jar with a lid. How much is valid analysis for enterobiasis for the garden? The validity period of the certificate is 10 days.
How much scraping on enterobiosis is valid in children and adults
Such a technique as perianal scraping is used only for the diagnosis of a particular disease. The tests are carried out in the morning before the hygiene procedures. A smear on enterobiosis is carried out by means of adhesive tape or a cotton moistened stick. These manipulations do not cause pain. Fence material can be done independently at home.
The deadline for scraping shall not exceed 2 hours; otherwise, the results of the study may be false. The result can be obtained just a day after the delivery of the material. For accurate indicators, it is recommended to perform the above steps several times with a four-day break. Help for enterobiosis for the pool, kindergarten, nursery is valid for 10 days.
Video: how to test for helminthiasis
If there are suspicions that parasites have settled in the body, it is better to immediately find out all the nuances of such an important procedure. Below are a few videos with very useful information. After watching the video, you can learn how to correctly collect the material for the survey, what actions and requirements must be performed.
How do the analysis on enterobiosis and helminth eggs?
One of the items on the list of mandatory examinations of specialists, hardware diagnostics and laboratory tests is "analysis of feces for eggs of worms and scraping for enterobiasis." Due to the fact that this item is usually removed from the beginning of the list, the attitude of adult patients and parents of the examined children to it is often very mediocre. At the same time, the prevalence of parasitic diseases is extremely wide. And the consequences that they can cause are quite serious.
Prevalence of intestinal parasites
About fifty (out of 287) of various helminths are widespread in humans. Most common are roundworms and pinworms. Their prevalence among the child population can reach 60–70%. In adults, they are found no more than every tenth patient examined.
Such statistics are explained by the transmission of the pathogen in the form of mature (invasive) helminth eggs. At the same time, the primary analysis for enterobiasis and ova worms reveals only about a quarter of all infections. Eggs are spread by fecal-oral, alimentary (through food and water) and contact method.
Preventive research purposes
Like any other diagnostic method, the definition of helminth infection has its own indications. Analysis of enterobiosis and worm eggs is carried out during routine examinations of children who do not attend day care centers. These studies are assigned to design a child in a kindergarten, school, before going to children's health camps and sanatoriums.
To identify infections, tests are also prescribed for adults. Nutrition workers are also regularly reviewed. Scraping for enterobiasis and worm eggs are included in the compulsory examination plan for staff members of preschool institutions. Planned hospitalization, registration of a sanatorium-resort card and employment in certain sectors will also not do without this research.
Suspicious "Seven" and 15 reasons for alarm
An analysis of enterobiosis and worm eggs should be done if there is a combination of seven signs listed below. If you identify fifteen items urgently and without delay, you should seek medical help.
21 questions with the answer "yes" or "no":
- Is there an itch of a periodic or permanent nature?
- Have a skin rash?
- Are there other manifestations of allergies (runny nose, cough, watery eyes)?
- Periodically nausea or vomiting, not related to errors in nutrition?
- Permanent bitter taste in the mouth?
- Is there bloating, causeless violation of the chair?
- Are abdominal pains going on by yourself?
- Is periodic yellowing of the skin determined?
- Are enlarged lymph nodes detected?
- Is there a periodic obscure rise in body temperature?
- Concerned about frequent headaches or dizziness?
- Is there a sleep disorder (superficial, insomnia, with nightmares)?
- Did you get snoring or creaking teeth in your sleep?
- Is there a loss of performance, general weakness and fast fatigue, chronic fatigue?
- Muscles or joints began to hurt for no apparent reason, what is more pronounced at rest?
- Are there swelling of the legs?
- Has your appetite decreased or increased? Is there a loss of body weight?
- Do you prefer lean roast meat (“with blood”), like fat, jerky fish, sushi?
- Often eat vegetables "from the garden" or unwashed fruits, greens?
- Does one of the family members work in a kindergarten, boarding school, another child care institution, or is there a preschool child in the family?
- Do you work “on the ground”, are there mammals pets?
It is worth noting that this test is indicative, and its clinical significance can be justified only with the advice of a doctor and laboratory diagnostics.
Reliability of laboratory studies
Having a very widespread prevalence and high infectivity, helminth infections present a certain complexity for laboratory diagnosis. The fact is that these diseases can be reliably detected only by finding helminth eggs in the test material. And, despite the fact that the analysis itself for enterobiosis and worm eggs will take no more than one working day, or more precisely, several hours, parasites are detected only in a third of cases in clinically identified carriers. Therefore, for the exact denial of helminthiasis, the analyzes should be repeated several times with a break of two to three days.
Patient preparation and material collection
Worm eggs are found in the feces. Accordingly, for this analysis it is necessary to take several servings of fresh feces. Before a bowel movement it is necessary to empty the bladder so that urine does not get into the material. Samples of stool are taken from different areas of feces. For the convenience and simplicity of the material intake, you can use a special plastic container equipped with a spoon-holder attached to the inside of the lid. Any special preparation for the delivery of this analysis from the patient is not required.
The situation is somewhat different if the analysis for enterobiasis is performed. How to take an analysis: the preparation of the patient is the lack of processing (toilet) of the anal area just before the material is taken. Scraping is done, smear imprint. The study is conducted in the morning, if possible - immediately after waking up. The equipment used for this analysis must be clean, dry and not in contact with the external environment.
Scraping for enterobiasis, analysis. How to take the material?
The principle of taking the material is called scraping conditionally. Naturally, nothing is scraping. More precisely, the collection of material called smear or print, depending on the equipment used.
When taking a smear, a sterile tube (glass or plastic) is used with a sterile cotton swab, which is removed from the tube just before the smear is taken. Do not touch the swab to anything other than the area of the anus. After the material is collected, a cotton swab is gently placed in the tube, and the latter is sealed.
The imprint is carried out according to the same rules as the smear. The difference is that instead of a cotton swab, the sticky side of the film of a special glass slide contacts the anus area. For material intake, the strip is carefully peeled off and applied to the test area. Then, also, nothing more touching, it must be glued to its original place. A glass slide must be placed in a dry clean container.
And in this and in another case, with an independent taking scraping, it must be delivered to the laboratory within half an hour. Allowed temporary storage of the material taken at a temperature of four degrees above zero on the Celsius scale not more than eight hours. However, it should be borne in mind that the reliability of the study is reduced by several times every hour after taking the material.
What if urgently needed?
When making medical records (medical records), sometimes a situation may arise when the need to take an analysis for enterobiasis is put before the patient as a fact. What to do if you urgently need to do an analysis on enterobiasis? How to take an analysis? Very simple. In the same way as in a planned order, but with a clarification of urgency (you can often pass the analysis directly to the laboratory).
The timing of the analysis
The laboratory needs some time to conduct such a study, such as the analysis for eggs of the worm and the analysis for enterobiosis. Dates of study vary (they depend on the workload of the laboratory). But in most cases, the result is known within a few hours after submitting the material for research. Sometimes an answer may be provided on the next business day.
About how much analysis is done on enterobiosis, it is necessary to find out in the laboratory. In this case, you can clearly plan further actions, especially if they are related to the upcoming trip or employment.
"Expiration date" of analyzes
Most clinical trials have a limited duration. This also applies to helminth tests. You can find out how much analysis is valid for enterobiosis directly at the time of delivery of the material to the laboratory or from the examining physician. According to accepted standards, the validity of research results is limited to ten days.
This is of considerable importance in the examination, not related to the diagnosis of diseases. Knowing how much analysis is valid for enterobiasis, you can plan this study along with other tests so that by the time medical documents are issued, when you arrive at a sanatorium or when you are scheduled for hospitalization, they do not expire.
Helminthiasis, in addition to unpleasant sensations and conditions, can be the causes of quite serious diseases. The presence of ascaris, pinworms and other intestinal parasites causes persistent allergies, disrupts metabolic processes, adversely affects the intestinal microflora. Toxins secreted by adults have a negative effect on the immune system, hematopoietic processes, and affect the nervous system. Helminths can cause the onset of tumor growth. When moving, they can cause mechanical damage to the intestinal wall.
With widespread prevalence, they pose a very serious health hazard. This is especially true of the first risk group - young children. Considering how much analysis is done on enterobiosis and worm eggs, we can recommend regular examinations of babies, family members, where there are young children, food industry workers, DDU employees, and pet owners. So you can significantly affect the spread of parasites.
Feces on enterobiosis
In enterobiasis, part of the pinworms is excreted with feces. They are clearly visible on the surface of freshly excreted feces. Eggs in feces are rarely found. Helps to detect pinworms with a small cold water enema. The parasites get into the tank with the water that flows out (better than a dark color).
The analysis of feces for enterobiasis has a low degree of confidence - about 20%. Its advantages are that other parasites can also be identified.
Some installations for collecting feces for research:
- On the eve of collecting feces for the study should not take laxatives and put an enema.
- Before the act of defecation should empty the bladder.
- Do not wash.
- Collect feces in a special container.
- The feces are taken with a measuring spoon from three sides and the middle of the stool mass.
- The collected material is immersed in a container.
- It is necessary to deliver the collected material to the laboratory within 24 hours.
- If necessary, the container with the collected material is best stored in the refrigerator.
Fig. 3. Pinworms in feces.
Fig. 4. Eggs of pinworms. Fresh smear of feces.
Fig. 5. Tanks for collecting material for research.
Scraping for Enterobiasis
For the diagnosis of enterobiasis, a microscopic method is used, the material for which is the contents of scrapings of the perianal region and subungual spaces, smears, washes from objects and linen, feces. Scrapings and smears on enterobiosis are used to detect the eggs of parasites.
Scraping for enterobiasis is best done in the morning. Hygiene procedures are not performed prior to taking the analysis. When a negative result is received, the analysis is repeated.
How to take scraping on enterobiosis
Scraping for enterobiasis is carried out with a glass spatula, pre-moistened with 50% glycerol solution or 1% caustic soda solution. Scraping is made from the area of perianal folds. Next, the resulting material is transferred to a glass slide and sent to the laboratory.
Fig. 6. Disposable glass spatulas for manipulating scraping on enterobiasis.
Fig. 7. Eggs of pinworms under a microscope.
A smear on enterobiosis is used to detect pinworm eggs. A cotton swab moistened with glycerin, distilled water, or saline is used to take the material. Next, a cotton swab several times should be held around the anus and immersed in a container for shipment to the laboratory.
Fig. 8. Smear on enterobiosis in children and adults by using a cotton swab.
Parasitic diseases are widespread among the population of all continents. One of the most common parasitic infections caused by worms is enterobiasis. How does enterobiosis occur in adults and children? What are the main symptoms of enterobiasis worth paying attention to in time to make a diagnosis? How is it required to pass the correct analysis for enterobiosis? What is scraping (smear) for enterobiasis? Where to pass tests for enterobiosis? Is the stool analysis for enterobiosis indicative, or is this study meaningless? How is the prevention of enterobiasis and its treatment?
What is enterobiosis?
Enterobiasis is a parasitic infection that is caused by pinworm. This parasite belongs to the type of roundworms, the class Nematodes. In the human body, pinworms live in the cecum and in the lower part of the small intestine, can sink into the thickness of the intestinal mucosa, which leads to the formation of granulomas. Also pinworms sometimes penetrate the vagina, uterus and ovaries in girls and women, causing inflammatory changes there.
Who causes enterobiosis?
The causative agent of the disease "enterobiosis" is the worms - pinworm. In Latin, it is called Enterobius vermicularis ("Enetrobius Vermicularis"). The appearance of worms - enterobiosis pathogens has its own characteristics. The female has a length of about 1 cm (from 9 to 12 mm), it has a pointed tail end. The sharp tail greatly injures the mucous membrane of the human intestine. The length of the male is 2-3 times less than that of the female. His tail is spiral folded.
The adult individual lives in the caecum of a person and the final section of the small intestine. Cecum - the initial section of the colon. At night, females leave the cecum and crawl out through the anus. It is at night that the anal sphincter relaxes, which does not prevent them from leaving the intestines.
After leaving the intestines, the female lays eggs in the area of the perianal folds in large numbers (from 5 to 15 thousand eggs). After this pinworm dies. After several hours, the embryo from the egg turns into a larva, which independently begins to parasitize.
Laying eggs in case of enterobiosis is characterized by the fact that they are stable in the environment and last for a long time that they remain viable (up to 3 weeks). They pollute the clothes of a person, his bedding. The pinworm lives for about a month: this is the time from the moment of infection of a person before it lays eggs, and enterobiasis will continue to spread.
How does enterobiosis occur?
Enterobiasis in adults and children develops only when they become infected from a sick person. Infection occurs through infected objects (bedding, clothing, toys, personal belongings, carpets, pots, through the floor, door handles). The main mechanism of infection is called fecal-oral.
How exactly does the infection occur? At night, at the time of the release of pinworms, the patient experiences severe itching around the anus and scratches this place. Sometimes he does not realize that he is scratching himself in a dream. Itching occurs both from mechanical irritation and from exposure to pathogens. The laid eggs remain on hands, under nails and get on household goods. In the same place under the nails of the eggs go the larvae.
A person who touches the things of the sick person is at risk of becoming infected with enterobiasis through dirty hands. In the same way, re-infection by the larvae of the pinworms of the patient himself occurs. In addition, mature larvae in the perianal area crawl back into the intestines of the patient and reach their mature status there.
If this circle is not interrupted, the disease can persist for a long time, even several years. During the same time, many may become infected with a sick person: relatives, family members, friends, classmates, and even work colleagues. The risk of infection will be much less if both parties follow the basic rules of personal hygiene.
Symptoms of enterobiasis
In the case when the patient is suspected to be enterobiasis, the symptoms to which you should pay attention to the following:
- Itching sensation in the anus. Itching usually worries at night during the period of activity of females of the pathogen. Children are especially itchy, not realizing in a dream what they are doing. Parents pay attention to traces of nails after scratching. Itching is intermittent if the infestation with pinworms is not strong. That is, as new mature individuals mature, itching will appear.
- If the pinworm invasion is severe, then itching appears not only around the anus, but also spreads to the genitals, the perineum.
- Infection with scratching leads to local complications: paraproctitis, eczematous dermatitis, sphincteritis, pyoderma.
- The patient does not sleep well at night, does not get enough sleep, becomes irritable (especially children). In children, performance decreases, concentration decreases. These neurological disorders can be further aggravated, in connection with which there are headaches, fainting, and epileptic seizures.
- Some develop night enuresis.
- Symptoms of the intestine: abdominal pain, rumbling in the intestines, bloating, nausea, vomiting, abnormal stool. Sometimes there is diarrhea with mucus.
When penetration into the lumen of the vermiform process of the caecum (appendix) pinworms can cause an attack of colic, which resembles pain in acute appendicitis. Also pinworms sometimes contribute to the development of the most acute appendicitis.
Symptoms of enterobiasis sometimes pass under the guise of other diseases, especially in females. When they enter the ovaries, uterus and vagina, pinworms cause inflammatory processes there, which are accompanied by characteristic symptoms: abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, menstrual disorders, and others. Accordingly, the patient will go with her complaints to the gynecologist.
Features of enterobiasis in children
Enterobiasis in children occurs much more often than in adults. This is due to the fact that children often neglect the rules of personal hygiene, especially the smallest. Exploring the world, they all drag into the mouth, because of which worms can get into their bodies (enterobiosis or other helminthiasis will develop).
It is in children that enterobiasis can hide behind the mask of other diseases such as: neurological problems, incomprehensible allergic conditions, immunodeficiencies, problems with digestion, etc.
Features of enterobiasis in adults
Enterobiasis in adults in most cases is asymptomatic or with obliterated symptoms. Enterobiasis is usually detected by chance during routine medical examinations. Often, positive tests for enterobiosis are an unexpected unpleasant surprise, while the person did not even think about the possibility of this disease. Often, an adult is infected with enterobiasis from children, both from their children and when working in a children's team.
Diagnosis of enterobiasis
In the case when the patient is suspected of enterobiosis, the symptoms and the time of their occurrence are the leading aspects in the diagnosis of the disease. But often the infection proceeds with scant signs or is completely asymptomatic, therefore it is important to use laboratory methods for the diagnosis of enterobiosis.
In some cases, the patient or his parents themselves discover adult worms on the surface of feces.
If a person needs to be tested for enterobiasis, how do they take the necessary tests? In most cases, a scraping (smear) for enterobiasis is prescribed. Less commonly assigned stool analysis for enterobiosis.
How to pass a smear on enterobiosis in adults?
If an adult examination for enterobiasis is required, how is the analysis taken? The rules for taking the material and the essence of the analysis do not differ from those in children. The patient is faced with a study on enterobiasis to ask how to take it correctly.
Many adults consciously wash away before analysis or use laxatives to get a deliberately negative result. Yes, in this way they will receive the coveted certificate that they are doing well. But it is fraught with the fact that pinworms, if present in the body, will continue to cause pathological processes, leading to complications. The patient should know that helminthic invasion often leads to inhibition of immunity, disruption of the digestive tract, and allergic diseases. Therefore, it is better to treat the disease in time in order to protect both your health and those around you.
Analysis of feces for enterobiosis
The analysis of feces for enterobiasis is prescribed by doctors much less frequently than by scraping for enterobiosis. This is explained by the fact that the female does not lay eggs in the lumen of the intestine, but does so in the perianal folds, therefore, even in the presence of enterobiosis, the analysis of feces is informative only in one third of cases.
How to pass feces on enterobiosis correctly?
How to properly take on enterobiosis feces?
- On the eve of the test, do not use rectal medications, enemas, laxative drugs and antibiotics.
- Prepare a clean dry container (plastic container, glass jar), it is not necessary to sterilize it.
- Do not wash before the analysis.
- Avoid contact with the feces of other biological fluids (urine, blood, mucus), so it is better to use a pot or vessel. Before stool, it is worth urinating separately, during menstruation in women use a tampon.
- After defecation collect feces in a jar. The amount of material about two teaspoons. Take feces from different parts of the stool to make the study more informative.
- Store feces in a closed container for not more than a day in the refrigerator.
- In time to deliver the material to the laboratory.
In the study of feces for enterobiosis in children, how to take the material?
- Do not flush the child before collecting the material.
- Ask him to urinate first, then you need to pour out urine and rinse the pot.
- Ask the child to poop.
- Collect feces in a jar.
- You can take the feces for analysis from the diaper from the smallest.
What are the worms eggs with enterobiasis?
Pinworm eggs in enterobiasis have an asymmetrical shape, they are oblong. The eggs of the causative agent of enterobiosis are very, very small, they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Their size is about 0.05 mm and even smaller. If you look at them under a microscope, you can see that the egg shell is transparent and has a double contour.
How informative scraping on enterobiosis?
Studies have confirmed that in the study of a sick patient once or twice it is possible to confirm enterobiasis in more than half of the cases. If you conduct a study 1-2 times more, then with a probability of up to 95% enterobiosis will be confirmed if present.
That is, scraping for enterobiasis is not always informative: there are false negative results. False positive results are possible only because of the human factor (they mixed up analyzes in the laboratory or blanks).
Why there are false negative results:
- The analysis was taken in the "silent" period of the disease, when females do not lay eggs yet, but already parasitize in the intestine.
- Violation of the rules for taking the material and its transportation.
- Taking laxatives, antibiotics or rectal suppositories on the eve of analysis.
- The patient carefully washed away before the analysis. Of course, clean patients are accustomed to take a shower before going to the hospital, but doctors should explain before the analysis of enterobiosis how to take it properly.
Where do I need information on enterobiosis?
Often a person is required help on enterobiosis, or rather a document in which there is an official record that enterobiosis is not detected. That is, the analysis is given even in those cases when a person is not disturbed by anything, and there is no suspicion of enterobiasis.
When do I need help on enterobiosis?
- Before entering preschool or school,
- When you pass the medical examination when applying for a job or study,
- Before visiting the pool and other organized groups (clubs, sections),
- Before planned operations and before some planned hospitalizations,
- During routine medical examinations and clinical examinations at the place of work or study (1-2 times a year),
- Before paperwork for spa treatment.
Help for enterobiasis is valid for 10 days.
Why take an analysis on enterobiosis to visit the pool?
To pass the analysis on enterobiosis for the pool, you must contact your local doctor (pediatrician or therapist) for an appointment. How long does the analysis on enterobiosis for the pool? Usually, the answer is already ready on the day of the test, but is given to the patient the next day.
Help for enterobiasis for the pool is required in most pools. This is due to the fact that it is easy to get infected with enterobiasis in the pool if there is an infected person there. The fact is that in the pool all are exposed, they use a common shower, toilet and furniture. Sometimes people in the pool accidentally swallow water, while there may be eggs or pinworm larvae.
In most cases, when diagnosing an enterobiosis infection in a patient, the treatment is carried out at home. Only patients with complications are hospitalized, for example, during the development of an attack of acute appendicitis.
Treatment is prescribed by a general practitioner, pediatrician, infectious disease specialist or gastroenterologist, depending on which doctor the patient began the examination.
When infection "enterobiosis" treatment is carried out anthelmintic drugs:
- Mebendazole (Vermox),
- Pyrantel and others
Anthelmintic drugs violate the vital activity of worms, they die and leave the body along with feces. The dose of the drug is calculated by the doctor, based on the age and weight of the diseased. Each drug has its own characteristics, indications and contraindications, so you can not self-medicate, even being confident in the diagnosis.
Simultaneously with the treatment, enterobiosis is prevented, namely the prevention of reinfection of the person with pinworms. That is, at first the patient takes the medicine prescribed by the doctor according to a certain scheme (once or in three doses), and then re-takes the same drug after 2 weeks.
It is very important to treat all family members at the same time, even if one of them has enterobiosis not confirmed.
Before a course of treatment at home or in a team (a group of a kindergarten or an orphanage, etc.), wet cleaning is carried out, and a change of underwear and bed linen is carried out. The sick should take a daily shower, every day to change underwear. At the time of treatment is to wear tight pants that fit the hips. After the course of treatment, the bedding is either changed or ironed with a hot iron. When conducting a second course of treatment, the same thing is done.
After 15 days after the full course of treatment, the patient again undergoes tests for enterobiasis.
Prevention of enterobiasis includes the following activities:
- Regular examination of children from children's groups. Scraping for enterobiasis is usually prescribed during the formation of the children's team and after the children come to the team after the summer holidays.
- According to epidemic indications, an analysis of feces for enterobiosis or a smear for enterobiosis is done more often.
- A smear on enterobiosis (scraping) is also taken from adults when applying for work (some specialties), as well as at annual check-ups.
- A sick child is suspended from visiting a children's institution until he is treated. Upon completion of the course of treatment, the doctor issues a certificate for enterobiasis, where it is indicated how long he can visit the team again.
- If tests for enterobiasis taken from the whole team (for example, a group in an orphanage) show positive results for only 20%, then all team members (both children and adults) will be shown antiparasitic treatment. Preventive treatment of enterobiasis is carried out twice with a two-week interval.
- The most important part of enterobiosis prevention is personal hygiene. It is important for children to explain why they need to wash their hands with soap after using the toilet very carefully, and also why they should do it before eating, why not to put other people's things and toys in their mouths.
The prognosis for enterobiasis is generally favorable. However, it is very important to regularly conduct medical examinations in time to identify and treat dangerous diseases, including helminthiasis.
How to take an analysis on enterobiosis?
For the implementation of the most accurate and correct diagnosis of the analysis of feces for enterobiosis, it is important to limit yourself from mistakes in the collection of biological material to be studied. The final result is influenced by such factors as: the speed of its delivery to the laboratory, the preliminary intake of drugs, compliance with the rules of collecting feces, the quality of work of laboratory technicians, the timing of egg laying with pinworms.
Analysis of feces for enterobiasis should be taken several times, especially if there is a suspicion of helminthic invasion. The fact is that there is a high probability of getting into the so-called “mute period” when female pinworms are in the intestine and are waiting for eggs to mature. At this time, it is quite problematic to detect helminth individuals or their eggs in feces.
In general, most doctors are inclined to believe that the analysis of feces for enterobiosis is not informative, which is associated with the morphobiology of the parasites of this species. After all, it is known for certain that they do not lay eggs in the intestinal lumen. For the masonry, the worms crawl through the anus to the perianal folds. However, in some cases (about 30%) in the feces it is possible to detect parasites or their eggs (if they were washed away from the perianal folds), and it is also possible to detect eggs of other helminths, for example, ascaris or tsepny.
Before taking a stool test for enterobiasis, it is necessary to prepare. To do this, you must eliminate the use of any rectal suppositories, do not do cleansing enemas, do not take antibiotics and laxatives. Otherwise, feces for the analysis of enterobiosis will be unsuitable.
The sampling analysis of feces for enterobiosis is carried out as follows:
Stool samples should be taken from different areas of feces: from the side, from the bottom, from the inside. Thus it will be possible to increase the information content of the study. If suddenly a person saw on his own in the faeces of parasites or their parts, then it is imperative that the detected material be folded in a container that will be sent to the laboratory.
As for the volumes that need to be collected. The minimum volume is about two teaspoons. A smaller amount of feces will not allow to obtain reliable information about the worm infestation.
A container that is designed to collect feces must be impermeable and must have a tight lid. It is very convenient for this purpose to use special containers that are available in pharmacies. As a rule, complete with a container is a spoon with the help of which it is convenient to collect biomaterial. Although you can use a regular box or a regular jar. The container does not need to be sterilized, it is enough to wash it well.
The earlier the samples are delivered to the laboratory, the more informative the result will be. However, feces may not be quite fresh, it is allowed to be stored in certain conditions during the day.
Care should be taken to ensure that no impurities get into the container and on the stool. In this case we are talking about urine or vaginal discharge. Therefore, it is desirable to urinate before bowel movement. If at the time of the analysis of a woman's menstruation, then you should use a tampon. Only after that you can begin to collect material.
When a baby’s feces are required for research, it can be taken from a baby pot or from a diaper.
If it is not possible to send the container with the biomaterial to the laboratory immediately, then it should be tightly closed and refrigerated. There it can be stored at a temperature from 0 to +4 ° C for no more than 24 hours. If you violate the rules of stool storage, it will negatively affect the interpretation of data.
If possible, the study should deliver a morning portion of feces. It is important to remember to sign the container before delivering it to the laboratory. You need to specify not only your initials, but also the date of collection of the material.
It is necessary to pre-tune in to the fact that it will be necessary to take the stool for enterobiasis about three times, and maybe even more (no more than five times).
If a person knows that he will not be able to deliver feces to the laboratory for knocking, and there is no opportunity to collect a new portion, then the biomaterial should be immediately collected in a special solution. To do this, fit 70% ethyl alcohol, which prescription can be purchased at the pharmacy. In addition, you can use a 50% glycerin solution. To do this, glycerin must be mixed with distilled water (90 ml of water, 50 ml of glycerin). In the resulting composition, you can store feces for 2-3 weeks. For one part of feces will need three parts of the preservative.
How much analysis is done on enterobiosis?
The analysis on enterobiosis is done within 24 hours. As a result, the person receives a form on which the conclusion will be written. Normally, worm eggs and pinworms in the feces should not be detected. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that the informativeness of the method, especially with a single delivery of feces, is very low and ranges from 30 to 50%. Therefore, it may be necessary to deliver the biomaterial several times to the laboratory.
How much is valid analysis on enterobiosis?
The analysis on enterobiosis is valid for 10 days. That is, if a person has not submitted a certificate at the place of demand during this time, he will need to take feces for helminthic invasion again.
However, these dates do not mean that every 10 days you will need to visit the clinic. In various institutions, the document on the absence of enterobiosis in humans is required at various intervals.
Preschool children attending kindergartens must pass stool for enterobiasis 1 time per year. Additional testing may be required if the child has been absent for a long time.
If an adult gets a job at a company where a sanitary book is necessary, he must pass an analysis for enterobiasis 2 times a year. Although it is possible that the internal charter of the enterprise will require more frequent delivery of the biomaterial.
If a person regularly visits the pool, he will also need to submit a certificate at least 2 times a year.
Be sure to perform an analysis on enterobiosis before making a voucher for a sanatorium-resort treatment.
Naturally, if a person has symptoms of enterobiosis, then you should not wait for any deadlines and consult a doctor as soon as possible for a qualitative diagnosis.
Education: in 2008, received a diploma in “General Medicine” (Therapeutic and Prophylactic) ”in the Russian Research Medical University named after NI Pirogov. Immediately passed internship and received a diploma of therapist.
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Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease that is triggered by roundworms (pinworms). Invasion is accompanied by pronounced anal itching, painful sensations in the abdomen, deterioration of appetite, allergization of the body and other symptoms. Worms, which provoke the development of enterobiosis, live in the intestine.
Scraping for enterobiasis is a study of a smear taken from a person's perianal folds. The analysis is aimed at identifying pinworm eggs in an adult or child. In order for the scraping to show reliable results, it is necessary to carry it out correctly. Most often, doctors explain the main points of scraping, but miss out.
Tablets from pinworms are designed to remove these worms from the body of the patient. Modern preparations differ in the acceptable price and high efficiency. Most often, a single dose of the drug is enough to get rid of enterobiosis.Most tablets for the treatment of pinworms detrimental effect not only on adult worms, but also on their eggs.
Treatment of parasites in the human body is carried out with the help of anthelmintic drugs. There are drugs that have a wide spectrum of action, but there are also those that have a detrimental effect only on certain worms. In past years, to get rid of parasitic invasion.
What are the symptoms of an enterobiosis test?
Despite the short life of one worm, the disease of enterobiasis can last for many years, given the possibility of repeated self-infection by transferring eggs to the hands of a patient when the anal zone is scratched. Therefore, conducting a study on enterobiasis is necessary when the following symptoms appear:
- Itching in the anus, mainly at night, which is explained by the moment the female emerges. The intensity of itching varies and depends on the massiveness of the invasion - itching can become strong and constant, spread to the perineum and genitals.
- Scratches on the skin around the anus, which can become inflamed, become wet, and fester.
- Pain caused by inflammation of itchy areas.
- On the part of the gastrointestinal tract: bloating, rumbling, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, stool changes to the side, as anchored, and relaxation.
- Irritability, fatigue, poor sleep, especially in children.
- Fainting, bedwetting, in severe cases - seizures resembling epileptic seizures.
- Signs of appendicitis: pain in the abdomen (first in the stomach, then in the lower abdomen, right), nausea, temperature 37.5 C. Inflammation of the appendix can be triggered by the accumulation of adult pinworms in it. However, in this case, no surgical intervention can be dispensed with — conservative antihelminthic therapy is required.
- Itching, signs of inflammation of the vagina, uterus and fallopian tubes in girls. These manifestations develop with the penetration of worms in the genitals.
- Weight loss with normal and increased appetite.
In children manifestations of enterobiosis are expressed especially clearly. In adults, the disease is asymptomatic or with minimal manifestations, so they often become hidden sources of the disease.
In connection with this reason, a preventive examination of catering workers, educators and teachers for enterobiasis is recommended.
Also tests for enterobiasis and worms eggs (feces research for the presence of helminth eggs) are included in the compulsory study of children when they enter kindergarten and school, before leaving for summer camp.
- A study on enterobiosis is necessary when obtaining a certificate to visit the pool, sanitary book, as well as before hospitalization.
How to get tested for enterobiosis (scraping)?
You can take the analysis by contacting the clinic, in the department of sanitary-epidemiological station, in a paid clinic. Having received the referral, you need the next morning, without performing the toilet of the anus and genitals, as well as refraining from defecation, and women and from urination, to approach for the material intake in a medical institution.
In this case, there is no need to specifically purchase a container for biomaterial, and there is no loss of time for delivery to the laboratory.
But given that the activity of pinworms is especially pronounced in the early morning hours, it is possible to conduct an independent sampling of material for analysis of enterobiosis.
How to take your own? You must first buy in a pharmacy or take in a laboratory that will conduct research (usually commercial laboratories provide containers), a sterile tube with a cotton swab or special glass with adhesive tape (for this method you can take scotch and a sample laboratory glass, which must be degreased beforehand with alcohol ).
Material intake should be carried out without getting out of bed. If a smear / imprint of a child is taken, the child lies on its side. In a child, the probability of finding pinworm eggs is higher after a bad and restless sleep at night.
1. Method with test tube and wand:
- Remove the wand from the tube,
- Spread the buttocks with your free hand,
- Cotton end of the stick to hold around the anus, slightly pressing the stick on the skin,
- Carefully, without touching anything, place the wand in a test tube and close tightly.
2. Adhesive tape method:
- Peel off the adhesive tape from the glass, while trying to avoid contaminating the surface of the glass,
- Spread the buttocks with your free hand,
- For 1-2 seconds, stick the adhesive tape on the skin folds in the anus,
- Carefully peel off the tape from the skin and, without touching the sticky surface with your hands or other objects, quickly paste it back to the place where it was glued on the glass,
- Place the glass in the bag.
The material for analysis obtained at home must be delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours; samples must be placed in a refrigerator at 2-4 ° C before transport.
When conducting a material intake, visual detection of mature individuals is possible. In this case, the worm must be placed in a glass jar with alcohol and in the same way delivered to the laboratory.
How much analysis is done on enterobiosis?
The usual time for analysis is 1 day. The result is given the next day after the day the biomaterial is submitted to the laboratory.
The results of the analysis on enterobiosis
The conclusion from the laboratory will be as follows:
- A positive result means that enterobiasis is,
- A negative result says that there is no enterobiasis.
A positive result confirms the presence of enterobiosis. In this case, it is necessary to investigate for enterobiasis all family members of the patient, as well as those who are in contact with him. This is especially true of children attending kindergartens and other organized groups.
A negative result may indicate both the absence of the disease, and the wrong material sampling or the fact that on the day of taking the analysis, there was no release of the female helminth for laying eggs. Thus, a negative result cannot reliably exclude the absence of pinworms in the body.
With a negative result on the background of clinical signs of enterobiosis, it is necessary to analyze several times.
Reliability increases to 99% with a 5-fold study. Three tests are usually performed either in a row, every day, if itching is pronounced, or at intervals of several days, within 1-2 weeks.
In this case, the reliability will be about 90%. A one-time analysis is positive in 50% of cases, and in other cases it is either false negative or negative.
If it is not possible to fix the laying of eggs, and the symptoms of enterobiosis are expressed, in this case it is possible to carry out treatment without laboratory confirmation (at the discretion of the doctor). It is also possible to carry out PCR diagnostics. But it is quite a costly study.