Neuritis called inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerve (intercostal, occipital, facial, or nerves of the extremities), manifested by pain along the nerve, impaired sensitivity and muscle weakness in the area innervated by it. The lesion of several nerves is called polyneuritis.
Neuritis can occur as a result of hypothermia, infections (measles, herpes, influenza, diphtheria, malaria, brucellosis), injuries, vascular disorders, hypovitaminosis. Exogenous (arsenic, lead, mercury, alcohol) and endogenous (thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus) intoxication can also lead to the development of neuritis. The most common peripheral nerves are affected in the musculoskeletal canals and the anatomical narrowness of such a channel may predispose to the occurrence of neuritis and the development of tunnel syndrome. Quite often, neuritis occurs as a result of compression of the trunk of the peripheral nerve. This can happen in a dream, when working in an uncomfortable position, during an operation, etc. For example, people who have long-term movement using crutches can experience axillary nerve neuritis, squatting for a long time - neuritis of the peroneal nerve, constantly in the process of professional activity flexor and extensor brush (pianists, cellists) - neuritis of the median nerve. A compression of the spine of the peripheral nerve may occur at the site of its exit from the spine, which is observed in herniated intervertebral discs, osteochondrosis.
The clinical picture of neuritis is determined by the functions of the nerve, the degree of its damage and the area of innervation. Most of the peripheral nerves are made up of various types of nerve fibers: sensory, motor and vegetative. The defeat of the fibers of each type gives the following symptoms characteristic of any neuritis:
- sensitivity disorders - numbness, paresthesia (tingling sensation, "crawling goose bumps"), decrease or loss of sensitivity in the area of innervation,
- violation of active movements - complete (paralysis) or partial (paresis) decrease in strength in the innervated muscles, development of their atrophy, decrease or loss of tendon reflexes,
- vegetative and trophic disorders - edema, cyanosis of the skin, local hair loss and depigmentation, sweating, thinning and dry skin, brittle nails, the appearance of trophic ulcers, etc.
As a rule, the first manifestations of nerve damage are pain and numbness. In the clinical picture of some neuritis, specific manifestations associated with the region innervated by the nerve may be noted.
Neuritis of the axillary nerve is manifested by the inability to raise the arm to the side, decreased sensitivity in the upper 1/3 of the shoulder, atrophy of the deltoid muscle of the shoulder, and increased mobility of the shoulder joint.
Neuritis of the radial nerve may have different symptoms, depending on the location of the lesion. Thus, the process at the level of the upper 1/3 of the shoulder or in the armpit is characterized by the impossibility of extending the hand and forearm and thumb abduction, difficulty in flexing the arm at the elbow joint, paresthesias, and decrease in the sensitivity of the skin of the first, second, and third fingers. With arms stretched forward on the side of the lesion, the hand hangs down, the thumb is pointing to the index finger, and the patient cannot turn this hand palm up. Neurological examination revealed a lack of an extensor ulnar reflex and a decrease in the carporadial reflex. With the localization of inflammation in the middle 1/3 of the shoulder, the extension of the forearm and the extensor ulnar reflex are not disturbed. If neuritis develops in the lower 1/3 of the upper arm or upper arm, then extension of the hand and fingers is impossible, the sensitivity suffers only on the back of the hand.
Neuritis of the ulnar nerve it is manifested by paresthesias and a decrease in sensitivity on the palmar surface of the hand in the region of half IV and completely V finger, on the back of the hand in the region of half III and completely IV-V fingers. Muscle weakness is characteristic in the adductor and lateral muscles of IV-V fingers, hypotrophy and muscle atrophy of the elevation of the little finger and thumb, interosseous and worm-like muscles of the hand. Due to muscle atrophy, the palm looks flattened. With elbow neuritis, the hand looks like a clawed paw: the middle phalanges of the fingers are bent and the main ones are unbent. There are several anatomical sites of the ulnar nerve, in which the development of neuritis by the type of tunnel syndrome (compression or ischemia of the nerve in the musculoskeletal canal) is possible.
Neuritis of the median nerve begins with intense pain on the inner surface of the forearm and in the fingers. The sensitivity on the half of the palm corresponding to the I-III fingers, on the palmar surface of the I-III and half of the IV fingers, on the dorsum of the final phalanges of the II-IV fingers is impaired. The patient cannot turn his hand palm down, bend the wrist in the wrist joint, bend I-III fingers. When neuritis of the median nerve is pronounced muscular atrophy of the eminence of the thumb, the finger itself becomes in the same plane as the rest of the fingers of the hand and the hand becomes similar to the "monkey's paw."
Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of the median nerve in the carpal canal and the development of neuritis in the type of tunnel syndrome. The disease begins with periodic numbness of fingers I-III, then paresthesias appear and the numbness becomes permanent. Patients note pains in the I-III fingers and the corresponding part of the palm, passing after brush movements. The pain occurs more often at night, it can spread to the forearm and reach the elbow joint. Temperature and pain sensitivity of fingers I-III is moderately reduced, atrophy of thumb elevation is not always observed. There is a weakness of the opposition of the thumb and the occurrence of paresthesias when tapping in the carpal tunnel. A characteristic feature of Phalena - increased paresthesias with a two-minute flexion of the hand.
Lumbosacral plexopathy (plexitis) is manifested by weakness of the muscles of the pelvis and lower extremities, decreased sensitivity of the legs and loss of tendon reflexes of the legs (knee, Achilles). Characterized by pain in the legs, hip joints and lower back. With more lesions of the lumbar plexus, neuritis of the femoral and obturator nerves, as well as the defeat of the lateral skin nerve of the thigh, comes to the fore. Pathology of the sacral plexus is manifested by neuritis of the sciatic nerve.
Neuritis of the sciatic nerve characterized by dull or shooting pains in the buttock, spreading over the back of the thigh and lower leg. The sensitivity of the foot and lower leg is reduced, hypotension of the gluteus and calf muscles, a decrease in the Achilles reflex is noted. Symptoms of tension of the nerve are characteristic of neuritis of the sciatic nerve: the onset or intensification of pain when stretching the nerve while lifting a straight leg in the supine position (Laseguea symptom) or when squatting. There is pain at the exit point of the sciatic nerve on the buttock.
Neuritis of the femoral nerve it is manifested by the difficulty of extending the leg at the knee joint and flexing the hip, lowering sensitivity in the lower 2/3 of the front of the thigh and across the entire front-inner surface of the tibia, atrophy of the muscles of the front of the thigh, and loss of the knee jerk. There is pain when pressing under the inguinal ligament at the point where the nerve reaches the thigh.
Diagnosis of neuritis
If you suspect neuritis during the examination, the neurologist conducts functional tests aimed at identifying motor disorders.
Samples confirming neuritis of the radial nerve:
- patient's hands are palms on the table and he cannot put a third finger on the adjacent ones,
- the patient’s hands are on the back of the table and he cannot lift his thumb
- attempts to spread fingers pressed to each other hands lead to the fact that on the side of the neuritis is bending of the fingers and they slide across the palm of a healthy hand,
- the patient stands with his hands down along the body, in such a position he cannot manage to turn the affected hand with the palm forward and lift his thumb.
Samples confirming neuritis of the ulnar nerve:
- the brush is pressed against the table to the table and the patient cannot make the scratching movements with his little finger on the table,
- the patient’s hands are placed on the table with his palms and he fails to part his fingers, especially IV and V,
- the affected hand does not fully clench into a fist, flexion of the fourth and fifth fingers is especially difficult,
- the patient cannot hold a strip of paper between the thumb and forefinger, as the end phalanx of the thumb bends.
Samples confirming neuritis of the median nerve:
- the brush is pressed against the table to the table and the patient fails to make the scratching movements with a finger on the table,
- the brush on the side of the lesion does not clench into a fist completely due to the difficulty of flexion of the I, II and partly III fingers,
- the patient cannot oppose the thumb and little finger.
Therapy of neuritis is primarily aimed at the cause that caused it. When infectious neuritis prescribed antibiotic therapy (sulfonamides, antibiotics), antiviral drugs (interferon derivatives, gamma globulin). In case of neuritis resulting from ischemia, vasodilating agents are used (papaverine, aminophylline, xanthinol nicotinate), and in traumatic neuritis the limb is immobilized. Anti-inflammatory drugs are used (indomethacin, ibuprofen, diclofenac), analgesics, B vitamins and anti-edema therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide) is carried out. At the end of the second week, anticholinesterase drugs (neostigmine) and biogenic stimulants (aloe, hyaluronidase) are connected to the treatment.
Physiotherapy procedures begin at the end of the first week of neuritis. Ultrafonophoresis with hydrocortisone, UHF, pulsed currents, electrophoresis of novocaine, neostigmine, and hyaluronidase are used. Showing massage and special physiotherapy exercises aimed at restoring the affected muscle groups. If necessary, conduct electrical stimulation of the affected muscles.
In the treatment of tunnel syndrome, local administration of drugs (hydrocortisone, novocaine) is made directly into the affected canal.
Surgical treatment of neuritis refers to peripheral neurosurgery and is performed by a neurosurgeon. In the acute period of neuritis with marked compression of the nerve, the operation is necessary for its decompression. In the absence of signs of recovery of the nerve or the appearance of signs of its degeneration, surgical treatment is also indicated, which consists in stitching the nerve, in some cases, nerve plasty may be required.
Prognosis and prevention
Neuritis in young people with a high ability of tissues to regenerate responds well to therapy. In the elderly, patients with comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus), in the absence of adequate treatment of neuritis, the development of paralysis of the affected muscles and the formation of contractures are possible.
Prevent neuritis by avoiding injury, infection, and hypothermia.
Clinicians share two main types of neuritis:
- mononeuritis In this case, the inflammatory process covers only one peripheral nerve, without extending to others,
- polyneuritis. Several peripheral nerves are inflamed at once.
The main symptom of peripheral nerve inflammation is pain in the area that it innervates. In the area of localization of the lesion, a decrease in sensitivity, impaired motor activity, and numbness can be observed. Even atrophy of muscle structures is possible. Symptoms of inflammation are directly dependent on the type of disease that struck a person.
Types of Neuritis
There are various classifications of this state.
Depending on the number of damaged nerves:
- Mononeuritis - inflammatory process in a separate nerve.
- Polyneuritis - inflammatory process in many peripheral nerves.
- Plexitis - inflammation in the nerve plexus.
- Radiculitis - defeat of the nerve roots.
Depending on which nerve is covered by the inflammatory process, such varieties as neuritis of the femoral, facial, radial, median, elbow, peroneal, optic, brachial nerve, etc. are isolated.
If you do not treat neuritis, over time it can lead to serious neurological disorders, such as a violation (paresis) and a complete loss (paralysis) of movements. We advise you not to delay and go to the neurology clinic.
Neuritis is an inflammatory process that occurs in peripheral nerves. The reasons for it can be very diverse.
Depending on the function performed, the nerve fibers can be sensory or motor. There are those that are responsible for the vegetative functions: regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, internal organs, the frequency and strength of heart contractions, sweat, saliva, etc. Many nerves in the human body are mixed, that is, they contain fibers of different types. In the inflammatory process, their functions are impaired.
Some types of neuritis:
- Axial (parenchymal). First of all, the axial cylinders are damaged - processes of the nerve cells that form the basis of the nerve fibers, as well as their myelin sheaths.
- Vegetative. Primarily damaged nerve fibers, which provide vegetative functions.
- Hypertrophic (Dejerine-Sott). An inherited disease that usually progresses over time. The nerve fiber envelope grows and squeezes the neuron process. It gradually collapses and ceases to perform its functions. Gradually, the patient develops disorders of movement, sensitivity.
- Gombo. There is a breakdown of the nerve sheath in certain areas, while the processes of the neurons are not damaged.
- Interstitial Inflammation mainly covers the connective tissue of the nerve fiber. Usually this form of the disease develops as a result of autoimmune processes.
- False neuritis of the optic nerve. Congenital malformation, which may resemble the inflammatory process with its symptoms.
- Cochlear. The inflammatory process occurs in the auditory nerve. At the same time hearing is reduced, the patient complains of tinnitus.
- Neuritis Rossolimo. A type of hypertrophic form of the disease. Occurs in children, has a relapsing course.
Symptoms of certain types of neuritis
Neuritis nerves in the forearm. On the forearm are three main nerve: radial, ulnar and median. At their defeat there are pains, flexion or extension of a brush, fingers is broken. In the brush there is a feeling of numbness, tingling.
Brachial nerve affection. The main symptom is pain. The affected hand becomes less active, the patient is worse and less likely to use it. Sensitivity is impaired. There is increased sweating of the skin.
Neuritis of the peroneal nerve. The patient limps, often stumbles, shuffles his feet while walking. Because of the disturbance of movement, he can not stand on his heels. Taking a step, a man with a force throws the foot up and forward.
Femoral nerve affection. The patient is difficult to bend the leg in the hip and knee joint. The muscles in the front of the thigh become weaker, shrinking.The sensitivity of the skin in the lower half of the thigh, on the inside of the lower leg, is reduced.
Optic neuritis. There is a sharp decrease in vision. The patient complains of the constant or periodic presence of spots, flashes before his eyes. There is a strong pain behind the eye, which is aggravated during the turn of the eyeball, a headache.
Cochlear Neuritis. The inflammatory process develops in the auditory nerve. As a result, hearing is reduced, the patient is concerned about tinnitus.
Symptoms of Polyneuritis
Polyneuritis (multiple damage to small nerves) most often leads to violations of the type of "socks" and "gloves" - sensitivity and movement are disturbed in the hands and feet. There are typical symptoms of neuritis: deterioration of sensitivity, decreased muscle strength, autonomic manifestations (increased sweating or dryness, chilliness, thinning of the skin, increased fragility of the nails). Over time, ulcers appear on the skin as a result of malnutrition of tissues.
If you go to a doctor immediately, as soon as the first symptoms of neuritis appear, especially in young people, the chances that the treatment will be successful will be high and full recovery will occur. The prognosis is worse when the disease has not been treated for a long time, it manifests itself with pronounced symptoms, especially in the elderly. If you are worried about the symptoms described in this article, try to immediately contact a neurologist. You can register with the doctors of our neurological clinic by calling +7 (495) 230-00-01
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Neuritis - A general term that refers to the inflammatory process in the nerves. Its symptoms depend on which nerve is affected, what functions it performs. The reasons can be very diverse. In this article we will talk about the main.
The main causes of neuritis
Infections. Neuritis can be caused by diseases such as herpes simplex, shingles, diphtheria, influenza, and mumps.
Inflammatory processes in adjacent organs. For example, with otitis media (inflammation of the tympanic cavity), neuritis of the facial nerve can develop.
Injuries. Mechanical factors (injuries, constant vibration), chemicals, and ionizing radiation can lead to damage to nerve fibers with the subsequent development of inflammation. Often the inflammatory process in the nerve occurs after its injury.
Prolonged nerve compression. Probably, anyone knows the state when he was “lying down” on his leg or arm in a dream. Numbness, tingling, and other discomfort occurs. Usually they pass quickly. But sometimes neuritis can develop. People who constantly use crutches may develop brachial nerve neuritis.
Herniated intervertebral discs. Prolonged compression of the nerve root can lead to inflammation.
In order to eliminate the cause of the disease, it must be reliably diagnosed. In addition, you need to understand the degree of motor disorders, sensitive, autonomic functions. This can be done only by a qualified neurologist. Self-medication will be ineffective at best, and may be harmful at worst.
Polyneuritis usually occurs as a result of systemic effects on the body when many small nerves are damaged. Causes that can lead to this condition:
- Hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis. Some vitamins are necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system, for example, B1, B12.
- Diabetes. Diabetic polyneuritis is one of the most common complications in diabetics. Sometimes his symptoms occur even before a person finds out that he has diabetes.
- Various infections. In contrast to mononeuritis (damage to a single nerve), in this case, the pathogens or their toxins act on the entire body, as a result, many small nerves are damaged.
- Poisoning with certain substances. For example, heavy metal salts.
- Chronic alcoholism. Ethyl alcohol and its metabolic products have a toxic effect on the nervous tissue.
- Autoimmune diseases. In the nerve fibers, autoimmune inflammation develops, which leads to their death.
- Oncological diseases. Malignant tumors secrete toxic metabolic products that are carried through the bloodstream and have a negative effect on various organs and systems.
- Vascular Disorders. For example, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis. As a result, the nerve fibers no longer receive the required amount of oxygen and nutrients, an inflammatory process occurs in them.
How does a neurologist determine the cause of the disease?
In order for the doctor to figure out why you got neuritis, he needs to get detailed information from you. You can ask questions:
- When did the symptoms start to bother you?
- Where did they come from? Have you been sick before anything, have you been injured?
- Do you have hypertension, diabetes, other chronic diseases?
- Where do you work? Is your profession related to exposure to harmful substances, vibration?
Also in identifying the causes of the disease is of great importance examination.
Sometimes the cause of neuritis is a serious pathology that requires separate treatment. Therefore, as soon as you began to bother the symptoms, it is better to immediately consult a doctor. Get expert advice in our clinic of neurology in Moscow. Sign up for a convenient time for you by phone: +7 (495) 230-00-01
As a result of exacerbation of the disease, persistent movement disorders can occur: paralysis and paresis. Violation of the innervation of the muscles can lead to their atrophy and the appearance of contractures. Most of the complications of this disease are caused by exactly which nerve was affected:
- olfactory - one-sided reduction in the sense of smell,
- oculomotor - limiting the movement of the eyeball, double vision, omission of the eyelid,
- visual - a significant reduction in vision,
- abductor - restriction of eyeball movements,
- glossopharyngeal and vagus - problems with swallowing and speech, impaired sensitivity and taste, earache,
- facial - paresis (incomplete paralysis) or paralysis of the facial muscles,
- sublingual - atrophy of half of the tongue,
- median - disorders of flexion of the hand and several fingers, as well as the pathology of sensitivity of the palm and three fingers,
- diaphragmatic - hiccups, shortness of breath, pain in the hypochondrium,
- ulnar - weakness of the flexor of the fingers, disturbance of the palm sensitivity, atrophy of the interosseous muscles,
- radiation - problems with the extension of the fingers and hand, violation of the sensitivity of the hand,
- femoral - problems with flexion of the hip and extension of the lower leg in the knee joint,
- sciatic - weakening of the flexors and extensors of the foot, pain on the back of the thigh and the posterolateral surface of the lower leg, flabbiness of the gluteal muscles, decreased sensitivity of the foot and lower leg.
Prognosis for neuritis
Different types of neuritis in young patients are treated quite simply, since the tissues of their body quickly regenerate and respond well to therapy. For elderly patients with comorbidities, the prognosis is less favorable. In the absence of treatment or an incorrectly chosen treatment regimen, the formation of contractures and the development of muscle paralysis are possible.
Prevention of neuritis
The observance of simple rules will help prevent the appearance of neuritis. First you need to normalize the diet: food must be complete and balanced. It is extremely important to timely treat infectious and viral diseases. Prevention of neuritis also provides for the prevention of injury, timely vaccination, hardening of the body. Since one of the most common causes of neuritis is hypothermia, it is necessary to try to avoid it in every possible way.
Defeat of the optic nerve
This form of the disease is often diagnosed in people of working age. His symptoms are:
- "Fog" before my eyes,
- pain occurs if the patient begins to intensively move the eyeball,
- decrease in perception of various colors (become dull).
Hearing nerve damage
A characteristic symptom of the disease is a decrease in auditory function. Also, the patient is concerned about tinnitus, which occurs spontaneously. If inflammation spreads to the nerve that unites the brain and the vestibular apparatus, the patient will experience the following symptoms:
- wobbly walk,
- nausea and vomiting possible.
Brachial nerve affection
- pain syndrome in the articular articulation,
- limiting the range of motion
- reduced muscle strength
- decrease in the sensitivity of the skin in the area of inflammation.
This term refers to inflammation of the solar plexus. If this form of neuritis progresses, the patient has the following symptoms:
- loose stools
- pain in the epigastric region,
- increase in blood pressure,
- sense of fear and anxiety.
Neuritis - what is it?
Neuritis - this is an inflammation of the peripheral nerves, which is accompanied by pain and decreased sensitivity, paralysis and paresis are possible. In addition, the disease is characterized by movement disorders.
Innervation is the provision of nerves to tissues and organs, according to which the central nervous system instructs them to perform a particular function.
Neuritis can cause partial or complete paralysis.
There are nerves that suffer from inflammation more often than others:
If the nerve is inflamed in only one place, it is a question of neuritis. When several nerves are inflamed at once, they indicate a polyneuritis.
Neuritis is manifested by symptoms such as: deterioration of sensitivity, numbness, impaired motor function, pain. In severe cases, the movement of the affected area of the body becomes impossible.
Various infections, injuries, growing tumors, hypothermia and diseases not related to pathogenic flora, such as osteochondrosis or arthritis, can provoke the development of neuritis.
The mechanism of development of neuritis
The nervous system allows a person to exist. It is responsible for the mechanism of breathing, smell, thanks to it, people move, hear, see, etc. The peripheral nervous system is a huge internal organization, which consists of many nerves.
The nerve itself is a unit of the nervous system. It is represented by plexuses of nerve fibers that are covered with myelin sheath. Nerves provide communication between the brain and spinal cord with each other and with other organs.
Inside the nerves pass the blood vessels.
If the nerves are large, they are called nerve trunks. From these trunks depart branches. All nerves have a different structure.
Neuritis has a complex mechanism of development. But against the background of absolute health, it never arises. It is always preceded by any violations: vascular, metabolic, etc. It may be the cause of the development of neuritis, the resulting injury, or the tumor growing in the body.
Pathological factors destroy myelin and Schwann cells, which are responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses. If the violation is serious, then the axial cylinder suffers. The affected nerve is unable to function normally, which leads to disruption in the work of organs and tissues.
Most often, neuritis is diagnosed in women in old age.
Causes of Neuritis
Neuritis can be caused by such reasons as:
Injuries received. These include bone fractures, soft tissue bruises, tears of muscles and tendons, fractures, electric shocks, radiation effects, etc.
Inflammation of the internal organs.
Tumor neoplasms growing inside the body.
Viral and bacterial infections.
Diseases: measles, influenza, diphtheria, osteochondrosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, lordosis, arthritis, herniated disc, AVR, atherosclerosis, hypertension, tunnel syndrome, allergy, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, uremia, brucellosis, rheumatism, herpes, herpes, herpes, herpes, herpes, herpes, acupuncture, herpes, herpes, herpes simplex malaria, blood diseases.
Water deficiency in the body.
Intoxication with food, alcohol-containing liquids, medicines, chemicals.
Congenital anatomical abnormalities.
Sometimes a person experiences the symptoms of neuritis if he remains in an uncomfortable position for a long time. This can happen during a night rest, or because of the peculiarities of the profession. From the symptoms of neuritis often suffer people leading a sedentary lifestyle.
How to distinguish neuritis, neuralgia, neuropathy?
Neuritis, neuralgia and neuropathy are different diseases that differ in the mechanism of their development, etiological factors, and clinical picture. Therefore, combining them into one concept is wrong.
Neuritis is an inflammation of the nerve located on the periphery. The disease is accompanied by a lesion of the nerve fiber itself. Suffering from myelin sheath and axial cylinder.
Neuropathy is a lesion of peripheral nerves, most often nerve trunks, and not its single branches suffer. Nerve undergoes degenerative and exchange destruction. Neuropathy can be caused by injuries, disturbances in the blood supply system, metabolic failures. Symptoms of the disease are: deterioration of sensitivity, suppression of reflex activity, loss of strength. Neuropathy is a concept that not only neurologists appeal, but also psychiatrists. In the latter case, a disease is understood as an increased excitability of the nervous system against the background of its excessive fatigue.
Neuralgia is an inflammation of the peripheral nerves, but at the same time a person will not suffer from paralysis, paresis or deterioration of sensitivity. The nerve itself is not damaged much, its myelin sheath does not collapse, or is deformed slightly. The main sign of neuralgia is pain. It can be quite intense, concentrating in the area of the affected nerve. A person may deteriorate the sensitivity, sometimes join autonomic disorders.
Classification of neuritis
Depending on how many nerves were involved in the pathological process, there is a difference between mononeuritis and polyneuritis. In the first case, inflammation occurs only in one nerve, and in the second case, several nerve fibers are affected at once.
Depending on the site of inflammation, optic neuritis can be of the following types:
Retrobulbar or orbital neuritis. The optic nerve is inflamed outside the eyeball. That site which is located from an exit from a sclera to a chiasm suffers.
Axial retrobulbar neuritis. Inflammation will be concentrated in the maculopapillary bundle of the optic nerve. This is a serious pathology that can cause blindness.
Interstitial retrobulbar neuritis. The inflammation is exposed to the sheath of the optic nerve. It spreads into its deep structures towards the table.
Peripheral retrobulbar neuritis. Inflammation originates from the sheath of the optic nerve and passes to its tissue. With this type of neuritis, fluid will accumulate in the subdural and subarachnoid spaces.
Transversal neuritis. With this pathology, the optic nerve suffers throughout its length. The disease takes its origin in the axial beam, or on the periphery, and then spreads to other tissues.
False neuritis of the optic nerve. This is the pathology of the development of the optic nerve. Symptoms of the disorder resemble inflammation, but the nerve itself does not atrophy, visual function does not suffer.
In addition to optic neuritis, there are the following types of inflammation:
Axial neuritis when the axial cylinders of nerve fibers are inflamed.
Interstitial neuritis, in which connective tissue structures of nerve fibers are affected. Pathology often develops on the background of autoimmune processes in the body.
Parenchymal neuritis. First of all, the myelin sheath of the nerve and its axial cylinders suffer, and then the inflammation passes to its connective tissue structures.
Vegetative neuritis. In this case, peripheral nerve fibers are subject to inflammation.
Ascending neuritis. Such inflammation develops most often against the background of injuries to the lower or upper extremities. Then the pathological process begins to spread to the central nervous system.
Cochlear neuritis. The auditory nerve in the cochlea suffers. At the same time the patient begins to hear extraneous noises, his hearing is deteriorating.
On the etiological factor
Depending on what caused the development of neuritis, the following types of neuritis are distinguished:
Traumatic neuritis. The disease develops in the background of a nerve fiber injury.
Professional neuritis. Pathology is a consequence of the characteristics of the profession of man. So, inflammation often happens in people who are in contact with heavy metals, chemical vapors. The effect on the body of radiation is negatively affected.
Infectious neuritis. Inflammation of the nerve fiber occurs due to infection of the body.
Alcoholic neuritis. Nerves suffer from the fact that a person abuses alcohol. At the same time, vitamin B is flushed out of the body, which is responsible for the normal functioning of the nervous system. In addition, with excessive alcohol intake, the nerve cells themselves die.
The most common type of polyneuritis is alcohol neuritis. Obviously, it is associated with a lack of vitamin B, which is characteristic of people suffering from alcoholism. The first signs of the disease are numbness, tingling, weakness in the limbs, namely in the hands and feet. Over time, the pain increases, the sensitivity of the skin increases, it becomes smooth and dry. Keratosis (excessive keratinization) of the palms and feet is often observed. Deep reflexes disappear, muscle weakness becomes stronger (sometimes even before paralysis), while the functions of the bladder and rectum are not disturbed.
Symptoms are usually bilateral. The muscles innervated by the peroneal and radial nerves are most often affected. Often revealed violations of tactile and deep sensitivity. The nails become brittle, break, deform, hair becomes thinner. There are severe cachexia (exhaustion), severe muscle wasting, vasomotor disorders. Alcohol consumption leads to blindness. During treatment, bed rest, prevention of contractures with the help of tires and massage, maintaining the usual temperature of the diseased limbs, analgesics and a diet rich in vitamins are recommended.
Diagnosis of neuritis
To confirm the diagnosis of optic neuritis, the patient will be sent to undergo such examinations as:
These, in turn, may be as follows:
Diagnosis of radiation neuritis. The person puts his hand on the table, but at the same time he cannot put 3 fingers on the fingers next to him. Brush put backside on the table and ask the person to take a thumb. He cannot do this. Then the patient is asked to stand up and lower the arms down. In this position, he cannot turn the affected hand with his palm forward and is unable to lift his thumb.
Diagnosis of neuritis of the ulnar nerve. The patient puts the brush on the table. In this position, he cannot perform the scratching movements with his little finger. The hand continues to lie on the table, a person is asked to part his fingers. Particular difficulties arise with the 4th and 5th finger. Also, a person cannot make a fist and cannot hold a strip of paper with his index finger and thumb. The fact is that none of them is completely bent.
Diagnosis of neuritis of the median nerve. A person cannot perform scratching movements with his finger on the surface on which his brush rests. The patient is unable to clench his fingers into a fist. This is especially true for 1 and 2 fingers, and 3 fingers partially bend. A person will not be able to oppose the thumb of his little finger.
List of drugs
Prescribe drugs for the treatment of neuritis can only be a doctor. Independent administration of any drugs is unacceptable measure.
If neuritis develops on the background of an infectious process, then efforts should be made to eliminate it. When microbes are the cause of the disease, antibiotics are prescribed to the patient. If the infection is of viral origin, antiviral drugs are prescribed to the patient.
Select the drug depending on the sensitivity of pathogenic flora to it:
Amoxicillin, Vancomycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, Oxacillin. These drugs are prescribed for staphylococcal infections.
Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Doxycycline, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime - these drugs are prescribed for streptococcal infection.
Sulfamoxol and Sulfanilamide are drugs from the group of sulfonamides, which can be used to treat neuritis.
Betaferon, Interlock, Laferon, Neovir, Reaferon and gamma globulins are indicated for reception if neuritis is viral in nature.
Pathogenic flora, which multiplies in the human body, poisons it. Because of this, the patient may feel sick and even vomit, his body temperature rises, his weakness increases, his overall health worsens. Intoxication increases with the mass death of bacteria and viruses.
To remove them from the body, a person is prescribed detoxification therapy, which can be carried out in the following areas:
Use of sorbing agents: Atoxyl, Polyphepanum, Enterosgel.
The use of large volumes of fluid. Well, if it is enriched with vitamin C.
Acceptance of diuretic drugs: Furosemide and Diacarb.
Intravenous administration of glucose solution, polysaccharides, water-salt solutions.
To reduce inflammation and relieve pain, patients are prescribed drugs from the NSAID group. In severe neuritis, glucocorticosteroids (Prednisone) can be used. Representatives of NSAIDs - Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Nimesil, etc.
If a child with neuritis increases body temperature, then it can be wiped with water and vinegar.
In case of tunnel syndrome, injections with Novocain or Hydrocortisone are performed to eliminate inflammation. They are injected directly into the affected canal. If the disease was caused by a disturbance in the nutrition of the nerve against the background of ischemia of the blood vessels, then vasodilator medications are indicated. For this purpose, Euphyllinum or Papaverine can be used.
Neuritis is accompanied by a number of symptoms that can impair a person’s life and reduce its quality. Therefore, the patient is shown taking medications aimed at eliminating these symptoms. So, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing muscle spasms, the patient is prescribed Persen or Bechterew's medicine.
In order for a damaged nerve to recover faster, a person must receive vitamins. Therefore, in case of neuritis, vitamins of group B, vitamin E, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, milgamma, neurobion, neyrurubin are prescribed.
Ancillary drugs that can be used at the discretion of the doctor are: antihistamines, antiplatelet agents, angioprotectors, proteolytic enzyme inhibitors. Gravitational treatments can also be applied.